Первая страница
Наша команда
Контакты
О нас

    Главная страница


Трудности перевода в примерах практическое пособие для студентов III-IV курсов




Скачать 430.47 Kb.
страница1/6
Дата29.06.2017
Размер430.47 Kb.
  1   2   3   4   5   6

ЕВРОПЕЙСКИЙ ГОД ЯЗЫКОВ



Л. КУТУЗОВ

Практическая грамматика английского языка



ТРУДНОСТИ ПЕРЕВОДА В ПРИМЕРАХ

ПРАКТИЧЕСКОЕ ПОСОБИЕ


ДЛЯ СТУДЕНТОВ III-IV КУРСОВ

HANDBOOK FOR SIGHT TRANSLATION

Difficult Cases & Pitfalls as Translated into Russian

V. Lanchicov, A. Chuzhakin

For medium and advanced levels

World of Interpreting and Translation =WIT=

Москва


Р.Валент

2001

Сканирование, распознавание, вычитка:

Корректор, 2004

Только для некоммерческих целей.


ББК81.2Англ. 7я73

Мир перевода -6

Трудности перевода в примерах.

Практическое пособие для студентов III-IV курсов.

Данное пособие предназначено для отработки навыков письменного перевода и перевода с листа (ПСЛ) с английского на русский язык. Несмотря на кажущуюся легкость ПСЛ по сравнению с устным переводом на слух, на практике такой перевод часто вызывает наибольшие трудности, что в основном объясняется недостаточным знанием учащимися родного языка, неумением адекватно выразить свои мысли, а также сильным влиянием английского текста, что приводит к калькированию, буквализму, нарушению норм русского языка.

Материалы пособия можно использовать для перевода на слух и отработке навыков с применением лексико-грамматических трансформаций.



Трудности перевода. Пособие для студентов III-IV курсов переводческих факультетов / В.Ланчиков, А.Чужакин. — М.:Р.Валент, 2001. — С. 64 ISBN 5-93439-070-8

Тел./факс издательства: 917 41 53 e-mail: rvalent@online.ru

© В.Ланчиков, А.Чужакин, 2001 © "Р.Валент", 2001

© Концепция, составление, комментарий, обработка текста и эскиз обложки А.П.Чужакин, 2001


ВВЕДЕНИЕ

Данное пособие является практическим пополнением серии "Мир перевода" по углублению практических навыков перевода с листа (ПСЛ) на русский язык. Парадоксально, что, несмотря на кажущуюся сравнительную легкость ПСЛ по сравнению с переводом на слух, на практике он часто вызывает наибольшие трудности. Это в основном объясняется недостаточным знанием учащимися родного языка, неумением адекватно выразить свои мысли, а также сильным влиянием английского текста в процессе ПСЛ, что приводит к калькированию, буквализму, нарушению норм русского языка.

Материалы пособия можно использовать, в зависимости от уровня учащихся, для письменного перевода или перевода на слух с применением лексико-грамматических трансформаций.

Примеры в пособии взяты из прессы 1960—1990 годов, а также художественной литературы XX века и дают представление о развитии языка и изменениях значений некоторых слов.

Переводческие трудности выделены полужирным шрифтом. В некоторых разделах даются варианты перевода, не претендующие на совершенство, но указывающие на возможные переводческие решения проблем.

Рекомендуется обратить внимание на передачу сложной модальности, особенно в случаях may have been, could have done, might as well have said и др., которые часто вызывают затруднение при переводе (см. разделы: Модальность, Would, Модальные глаголы).

Пособие состоит из двух частей: LEVEL A (Introductory) — начальный уровень — основные виды трансформаций при переводе, LEVEL В (Advanced) — более сложные случаи переводческих трансформаций и распознавания "ловушек" в процессе как письменного, так и устного перевода с листа.

В Приложении рассматривается концепция модульного способа обучению устному переводу (Modules of Employable Skills), ориентированного на практическую деятельность и индивидуальный подход к обучению.

Источники:

Пособие по переводу кафедры перевода английского языка переводческого факультета МГЛУ (заведующий — В.Ф.Усов), подготовленное проф. В.Ланчиковым под редакцией Д.Псурцева, а также материалы С.С.Толстого, Р. Ледерера.

Дополнительная литература:

С.Толстой. Как переводить с английского языка. М., 1960, Изд-во ИНО

R. Lederer. Anguished English. Robson Books. London, 1987


Особенности перевода с листа (ПСЛ) — (sight translation) на русский язык

Переводящий получает незнакомый текст — иногда времени на подготовку совсем нет, иногда предоставляется немного времени на ознакомление; затем переводит вслух, — в идеале — быстро, четко и на хорошем русском языке.



Факторы, усложняющие задачу переводящего при ПСЛ:

Необходимость:



  • одновременно читать, переводить и проговаривать свой перевод;

  • членить текст или объединять фразы/предложения на такие отрезки, которые могут быть успешно переведены и лучше восприняты слушателем;

  • недостаточная культура языка и речи переводящего.

Факторы, облегчающие задачу ПСЛ:

  • возможность получить время для подготовки (не всегда);

  • наличие зрительной опоры для уверенного перевода;

  • зрительное восприятие прецизионной информации, что значительно облегчает перевод, делает его более точным;

  • другие преимущества восприятия информации не на слух, а зрительно.

Необходимые навыки и умения:

  • быстрое переключение на язык перевода при широком использовании полуавтоматической подстановки готовых соответствий (клише, штампов);

  • умение совмещать проговаривание перевода с чтением следующего отрезка оригинала;

  • владение всеми выразительными средствами родного языка и умение пользоваться ими для достижения максимальной адекватности ПСЛ.

Главные требования к переводящему с листа:

профессиональное владение родным языком, отвлечение от "давления" оригинала, умелое использование всех видов переводческих трансформаций.



Методические рекомендации к учебнику

Пособие может быть применяться на начальном этапе обучения письменному переводу для обработки перевода наиболее сложных случаев, а также как часть практического курса теории перевода.

NB! ПЕРЕВОДИШЬ С АНГЛИЙСКОГО - ДУМАЙ О РУССКОМ!

LEVEL A (Introductory)

1. Полисемия

А. Многозначные служебные слова: as, but, but for, either, neither, which.



as может означать: постольку; так как; по мере того, как; что касается (as to); как; в том виде, как; иногда может переводиться причастным оборотом (... as they took their seats — занимая свои места).

Варианты перевода:

a) As we go further and further to the South it grows warmer and warmer.

По мере того как мы приближаемся к Югу...



b) As to my mother's health it is much better. Что касается здоровья моей матери...

  1. Members were solemn as they took their seats: The Prime Minister gave a measured account of interests at stake and events of the past. Neither pace nor tone altered as he passed on to "what our next step should be." (" The New York Times")

  2. The Premier's speech followed a weekend of warnings by the Chinese leaders in Peking as celebrations for New China's National Day got underway. ("Daily Worker")*

  3. The resolution considered it unnecessary — and so that part disappeared from the resolution as adopted. (''Economic Issues")

  4. As stated in the program of the Communist Party of Great Britain, the aims of the working class are expressed both clearly and pointedly.

  5. As released to the press, the communiqué was as softly toned as just only possible, but rumour has it that, there had been another communiqué which was withheld at the very last moment. ("DW")

butозначает: лишь; but for — если бы не



  1. He is but a child, do not be angry with him!

  2. But for your help I shouldn't be able to understand this.

* далее "DW"

7


  1. He is anything but a good poet.

  2. Woods grew on either side of the river.

  3. However tired you are, you must finish your work.

  4. Yesterday my little son went out of the house to play without his overcoat. Now he recovered from pneumonia only a short time ago which will easily make you understand how anxious I was for him.

  5. Now little David Copperfield saw the young man with his donkey- cart, now he did not see him, now he caught a glimpse of him, now he lost him. (Ch. Dickens)

  6. Who will come with me, your brother or your sister? — Neither. They are both busy.

  7. The weather is very bad today, which prevents us from taking a long walk.

  8. Where a young bibliographer may make a mistake, a more experienced one will find the matter easy.

  9. Every student whether of the junior or senior courses must attend the lectures regularly.

В. Многозначные слова ("ложные друзья переводчика")

  1. The crew of the boat consisted of her husband, his two mates, three engineers, twelve firemen and ten able-bodied seamen.

  2. The undersecretary was in evening dress.

  3. "Take the chair" — shouted the comrades to comrade Johnson — "and don't give the floor to anybody for more than ten minutes; we want to hear your paper at full length."

  4. A physician working with X-rays must be something of a physicist.

  5. The work of a compositor is rather difficult.

  6. The speaker of the House of Commons stops a speaker if he puts things too bluntly.

  7. The tramp took up some kind of shipment at every port.

  8. The book was edited by a famous scholar.

  9. Mendeleyev was a great student of chemistry.

  10. A librarian must know both Sciences and Arts.

  11. The faculty of the New Orleans University consists of the best scholars, especially in Arts.

8

  1. I asked the chemist whether they had these preparations at the dispensary, I also asked him for dressing material.

  2. The salesman showed me a number of patterns for various fabrics.

  3. The officers of that company consist of the president, the treasurer, the counsel, the auditor, etc.

  4. "Look here, officer," said the old woman — "stop the traffic for a moment, so that I might walk over the square to the pavement on the other side."

  5. Little Oliver Twist was very much afraid of the master in the working house.

  6. "It is so hot in the stokehold" — said Jackson — "we ought to have better fans."

  7. Michael Jackson has lost many of his fans after the scandal.

  8. Five papers by excellent scholars were read at the Fuel Conference.

  9. The film has been edited by A.Peterson. He is a very good specialist.

  10. There are many creepers in the conservatory.

2. Неологизмы и эгологизмы



Some of these have been absorbed by the language and are widely used now.

  1. It was a decorated, becatered and bewaitered table. (B. Tarkington)

  2. She displayed wonders of horsemanship and horseman-woman-ship. (B.Tarkington)

  3. A man doesn't come a thousand and odd miles to be not-at-homed at the end of it. (Ch. Lever)

  4. There are people who have much and those who have nothing. — Well, you see. I'm among muchers. (G. Page)

  5. We are the not-wanteds. (R. Aldington)

  6. "We are has-beens now Kelly," said the former policeman to his dog.

  7. Summer at last. You look summary too. (E. Benson)

  8. She did her duty by me completely, but it is clear that there was no motherhood, no sonship between us. (H. Wells)

  9. The white tiled, gleaming-tapped bathroom. (G. Frankau)

  1. A strong northerly wind that found a few weary, half-skeletoned leaves to play with. (R. Sheriff)

  2. The stage of coccoondom for modern boys is soon gone out of. (A. Berkeley)

  1. It was a dehumanized apartment. (Я. Wells)

  2. The pill was sugar-coated. (W.Adcock)

  3. 1 may platitudinize, but I don't want any Shelleyan talk. (B. Shaw)

  4. Ireland has a right to nationhood.

  5. This man is an escapist from modern society.

  6. Is the child, a mouth-breather? (" Medical Journal")

  1. Modern Italy is an underbathroomed and overmonumented country. (A. Huxley)

  2. They had not so much Herbertian and Martaish in them when they came home from France. (A. Huxley)

  3. The burstless crests of the waves were coming on and on. (J. Masefield)

  1. She is air-minded.

  2. We have many books for the world-minded in our library.

23. There is after the blinds have been drawn a fine little roulette for every passenger in the Pullman. (B.Johnson)

  1. To coventrate every town under the sun — such is the wild dream of the war-mongers — and is there much difference between them and the brink-mongers? ("DW")

  2. The parassaboteurs are special troops, specially trained, specially equipped and provided with a special morale to do their task. ("DW")

  3. I do not think a working girl should take her standards from a socialite. (" DW")

  4. War and Peace filmized is after all not War and Peace as we read it.

  5. Cinemactors and cinemactresses are often chosen for general appeal rather than for their artistic merits.

  6. Motels are provided all the way down from New York to Chicago; car-owners find it most convenient. (E. Randolph)

10

3. Конверсия

  1. I papered my room yesterday.

  2. I have watered my flowers.

  3. The hospital houses 500 patients.

  4. The goods have been tabled.

  5. Don't gas so much.

  6. I have a cut on my cheek.

  7. He has a burn on his leg.

  8. The test run of the locomotive was very successful.

  9. There is a give in the beam.

  10. He went through the cold and through the damp, never afraid of catching cold.

  11. The then President of the United States was Lincoln.

  12. Don't syrup water!

  13. Don't water syrup!

  14. The dog spotted the hare.

  15. Jones was one of the best engine-drivers of that line. And Peter who fired for him was considered a first-rate worker too.

  16. The train steamed out of the station.

  17. He thundered out a command.

  18. I prefer to pencil that note, because, otherwise, I'll ink my fingers with your bad penholder.

  19. I don't like his looks. That red in his cheeks speaks of t.b.c.

  20. The cow has been milked.

  21. He clerked at a small factory.

  22. Your hat wants a brush.

  23. It's a mere nothing.

  24. It's a good buy.

  25. I don't like the feel of flannel of my skin.

  26. Give your horse a feed (give a read, give a thought).

11

  1. Through London streets yesterday the king's funeral procession took two-and-half hours to slow-march from Westminster to Paddington station. ("DW")

  2. We should not porch-porch the idea that this country should annex Egypt in order to safeguard the communications with India ... so say the Tories now and so they went on saying for years on end. ("DW")

  3. The die-hards are in fact nothing but have-beens. ("DW")

  4. The whys and wherefores of a war in which children must die have never been made clear. ("DW")

  5. We must live in the now and pursue a constructive policy. ("The Times")

  6. Hiroshima was atombombed without the slightest mercy.

  7. This is a robber budget, that the Tories want to introduce. ("DW")

  8. Weigh the fors and the against and the decision will be clear as daylight. ("DW")

  9. She watched her son wolfing his meal. (J. Hanley)

  10. We are inching forward to our target yet progressing we are. ("DW")

  11. It was a novel experience to find himself head-lined. (J. London)

  12. Don't be yanked into war. ("DW")

  13. Within the offices were newly plastered, newly painted, newly papered, newly floorclothed, newly tabled, newly chaired, newly fitted up in every way with goods that were substantial and expensive. (Ch. Dickens)

  14. How many a time have we mourned over the dead body of Julius Caeser and to be'd and not to be'd in this very room. (J.Austen)

  15. The number of signatures to the Appeal will snowball rapidly. ("DW")

  16. The short-time working which began in Lancashire has snowballed into a large-scale slump in the cotton industry. ("Daily Mirror")

  17. Both sides Ink Treaty.

4. Образные выражения

  1. He crowded a lot of adventures into his young life.

  1. The invention of the printing press is among the highest points in the history of education.

  1. This political party contains a new plank in its platform.

12

  1. His span of life was but short.

  2. The steam drop hammer has a massive frame which takes the punishment from the terrific impact of the ram.

  3. Cast iron proof was given to show that he was guilty.

  4. This was rather an unusual mood for Mr.N. whose mind navigated rather larger seas than those where his daughter's small barques adventured. (R. William)

  5. In spring plants shoot out rapidly.

  6. Fear dogged in his steps.

10. It was then that I embarked on my study of Shakespeare. (V.Spurgeon) 11. Time is disjoined and out of frame. (W. Shakespeare)

  1. Why should I write down what's riveted, screwed to my memory. (W. Shakespeare)

  2. This alloy is first cousin to another one.

  3. A number of conferences have been organized at which seasoned literary critics will discuss and analyze the works of budding authors.

  4. Let us spur the local industry of our country.

  5. England considers Canada as her granary, Australia as her butcher and New Zealand as her henhouse. ("DW")

  6. Before the war Italy, not wanting to have all her eggs in one basket,

tried alternatively to make friends with all the great powers. ("DW")

5. Газетные заголовки

Part I. Dead serious:

  1. Whither Modern Medicine?

  2. Why Polar Expedition?

  3. Steam Versus Electric Locomotives.

  4. Anglo-French Drive in Egypt Halted.

  5. Stay-in-Strikers at Chicago to Crush Bosses.

  6. 1000 British Aircraft Stop Work.

  7. Manchester Ship Canal Reconstruction.

  8. Portrait Exhibition Opening in New Orleans.

  9. Ford Automobile Repair Shop Organization.

13

  1. More Arms in Italy's Budget.

  2. Metal Works Reorganization Conference at Montreal.

  3. Physical Conference to Open Tomorrow in Chicago.

  4. Lorry Crushes into Shop-Window.

  5. Australia Adds to Fleet.

  6. Terrible Plight of Unemployed Miner. Family Living in Tent.

  7. Homes Smashed from Bombing Plane.

  8. Rise of Electric Traction. Electric Locomotives Cheaper and More Effective.

  9. Industrial Power Plant Modernization.

  10. Coal Handling Problems at Electric Stations.

  11. Electrical Features of Kansas City Water Works.

  12. Soil Water Supply Important for Subtropical Plants.

  13. Norwegian Tug-Boat on Fire. Crew Saved by Soviet Sporting Yacht.

  14. Maiden Speech of New M.P.Criticizes Premier.

Part II. Have a smile:

Юмористический эффект помимо воли авторов данных газетных заголовков вызывается многозначностью слов (полисемией) и усиливается из-за особенностей газетного стиля подачи информации в заголовках.



  1. Farmer Bill Dies in House.

  2. Lawyers Give Poor Free Legal Advice.

  3. Lawmen From Mexico Barbecue Guests.

  4. Juvenile Court to Try Shooters.

  5. Defendant, Speech Ends in Long Sentence.

  6. Stolen Painting Found by Tree.

  7. Hitler, Nazi Papers Found in Attic.

  8. Squad Helps Dog Bite Victim.

  9. Asbestos Suit Pressed.

  10. Deaf Mute Gets New Hearing in Killing.

  11. Men Recommend More Clubs for Wives.

  12. Milk Drinkers Are Turning to Powder.

14

Каталог: ebook -> umm
umm -> Типовая учебная программа по предмету «Музыка» для 1-4 классов уровня начального образования
umm -> Курс лекций "Государственное и муниципальное управление в зарубежных странах"
umm -> Учебное пособие по переводу с английского языка на русский выпуск 1 Москва 1981
umm -> Официально-деловой стиль речи
umm -> Книгам для чтения серии «Свободный ум»
umm -> Международного образования и сотрудничества исследовательский центр проблем качества подготовки специалистов государственного технологического униве
umm -> Д. Мак-Фарленд
umm -> Юрий Борев Эстетика
  1   2   3   4   5   6