The history of tractors dates back to the invention of the first tractor in 1868. These first tractors were powered with a steam engine. These original tractors were not the more compact models we see today at all. The first tractors were the size of small trains and were used primarily in the construction of roads and in the timber industry. The engines in the tractors of the late 1860s weighed in the neighborhood of 5 tons, making them a heavy duty hauler that could move much more weight that previously possible with horses.
The first gasoline powered tractor engine was introduced in 1887 by the Charter Gasoline Engine Company of Sterling Illinois. This revolutionary gasoline engine was a natural fit for tractors and the first gasoline powered tractors rolled off the production line in 1889. The history of tractors would not be complete without mentioning what is thought to be the first tractor to aid a farmer in his harvest. John Froelich of South Dakota successfully used a gasoline powered tractor to power his threshing machine during his 1892 harvest.
The first factory for the making of gasoline powered tractor engines came into being in the opening days of the twentieth century. This led to the historical Hart-Parr Number 1 tractor rolling off the assembly line in 1901. Henry Ford also plays a part in the history of tractors. Ford was working on a gasoline powered tractor engine as early as 1907. Ford did not call his tractor a tractor, however. In inimitable Ford style, his was an automobile plow. Largely due to the advancements made by Ford and others working in this field in the first decade of the twentieth century, by 1910 gasoline powered tractors were widely used in farming for the first time.
By the end of the second decade of the twentieth century, lightweight tractors were being developed by many major firms in the tractor industry. The history of tractors tells us that by the early 1920's; the massive tractors that were formerly technological innovations were being phased out in favor of the newer lighter weight models. The change from horses to tractors on farms began in earnest in the 1940s. Tractors could work harder and didn't need to rest. They could move greater weights and didn't need to be fed. It took tractors 1/4 of the time of horses to harvest the same amount of crops.
5. Дополните предложения глаголами, данными в рамке
see work use call date
1. The history of tractors ______back to the invention of the first tractor in 1868.
2. These original tractors were not the more compact models we _______today at all.
3. John Froelich of South Dakota successfully ________a gasoline powered tractor to power his threshing machine during his 1892 harvest.
4. Ford did not ________his tractor a tractor, however. In inimitable Ford style, his was an automobile plow.
5. Tractors could _________harder and didn't need to rest.
6. Перескажите текст History of Tractors Тема 6. «Фордзон и Фордзон-Путиловец»
“Fordson and Fordson-Putilovets”
Прочитайте и запомните следующие слова и выражения
the board of directors
a separate company
to sign a contract
2. Прочитайте и переведите текст
Henry Ford achieved success with the Model T Ford, but he was not content to limit himself to cars. Ford was the son of a farmer and he understood exactly what farmers needed and he used this knowledge to introduce automotive engines that could help the farming community worldwide. A prototype, called an "automobile plow", was built in 1907, but Ford’s ideas were greatly hampered by the board of directors who could not understand what he was trying to do and they did not feel that the company could benefit from these. Despite this, Ford was determined that he was going to put his idea into production. The Ford Motor Company and the directors were still unwilling to back Ford’s idea and so Ford decided to set up a separate company and called it Henry Ford & Son and Henry Ford had the main control over this business.
The first Fordson,
now owned by the Henry Ford Museum There were several different types of Fordson tractors and these included the Fordson Model F, Fordson Model N, Fordson Dexta, Fordson All Around, Fordson Power Major, Fordson Super Major and a Fordson Super Dexta.
Mass production of Fordson model F started in 1917. The Fordson Model F was a 20 horsepower engine and this was able to deliver a 10 horsepower drawbar.
In 1919 Ford signed a contract for a large consignment of Fordson tractors to the Soviet Union, which soon became the largest customer of the company. During 1921—1927 the Soviet Union purchased over 24,000 Fordsons. In addition, in 1924, the Leningrad plant "Red Putilovets" (КрасныйПутиловец) started the production of tractors Fordson-Putilovets (Фордзон-Путиловец) according to the American license. These inexpensive and robust tractors (both American and Soviet models) became the major enticement for Soviet peasants towards collectivisation and were often seen on Soviet posters and paintings from these times. 3. Ответьте на вопросы
1. Why was not Ford content to limit himself to cars?
When was the first Fordson tractor built?
Why did Ford decide to set up a separate company?
How many types of Fordson tractors were there?
When did Fordson tractor appear in the Soviet Union?
A prototype, called an _________________________, was built in 1907.
The Ford Motor Company and ____________________ were still unwilling to back Ford’s idea.
Ford decided to set up a separate company and called it __________________ and Henry Ford had the main control over this business.
The Fordson Model F was a 20 ____________________ and this was able to deliver a 10 horsepower drawbar.
During 1921—1927 _______________________ purchased over 24,000 Fordsons.
5. Найдите в тексте предложения со следующими словами:
automotive engine, automobile plow, benefit from, mass production, a large consignment, the production of tractors, inexpensive.
6. Перескажите текст
Тема 7. Современный трактор«Джон Дир»
The Modern Tractor «John Deere»
Сопоставьте выражения и перевод
the golden age
to pay attention
the agricultural vehicles
the wide-profile equipment
take root into
an important part
the most popular
пустите корни в
оборудование широкого профиля
2. Прочитайте и переведите текст
The first two decades of the twentieth century have been called "the golden age" of American agriculture, a prolonged period in which the balance between price and production consistently favored the farmer. Incomes increased, living standards improved and farmers were willing and able to invest in the new machinery offered by manufacturers who seemed to have sprung up in every city, town and village in the agricultural heartland. This and other factors give farming tractors a deep rich heritage that cross many fields of history.
If for comparison to look at the agricultural vehicles released abroad, it is possible to pay attention to a tractor let out by Deer & Company which developed and created the John Deere tractor.
John Deere is the universal tractor created by the producer, specializing on the wide-profile equipment for farming, and especially excellent line of new generation of tractors. Their cars were exposed at the international exhibitions and proved to be in business as the productive are very more qualitative also. Many international agricultural organizations were added by these a tractor to arsenal, having secured with reliability and quality guarantee as this firm works over release of the agricultural equipment here already almost that 170 years. Transmission and engines on these tractors is issued in the same place at plant, and for work optimization, the modern innovations providing increase of productivity and comfortable working conditions constantly take root into development of new models.
John Deere improved the original models to the extent that the John Deere Model 4020 became the most popular tractor of its era, and arguably one of the classic tractors of all time.
In 1868, Deere's business was incorporated under the name Deere & Company. The following year John Deere's son, Charles, who was later to succeed him as president, was elected vice president and treasurer. In 1918, the company purchased the Waterloo Gasoline Traction Engine Company in Waterloo, Iowa, and tractors became an important part of the John Deere line.
3.Посмотрите на картинку и переведите на русский язык составляющие первого трактора, произведенного компанией «John Deere»
1. throttle control ________________________________________________
1. The first two decades of the twentieth century have been called ________________ of American agriculture.
2. This and other factors give farming tractors ____________________ that cross many fields of history.
3. John Deere is ___________________ created by the producer, specializing on the wide-profile equipment for farming.
4. ________________ improved the original models to the extent that the John Deere Model 4020 became the most popular tractor of its era.
5. In 1918, the company purchased the Waterloo Gasoline Traction Engine Company in Waterloo, Iowa, and tractors became ______________________ of the John Deere line.
Тема 8. Джон Дир. История успеха
John Deere. А Success History
Прочитайте и переведите текст
The American inventor and manufacturer John Deere (1804-1886) was one of the first to design agricultural tools and machines to meet the specific needs of midwestern farmers.
John Deere was born in Rutland, Vermont, February 7, 1804. He spent his boyhood and young adulthood in Middlebury, Vermont, where he received a common school education and served a four-year apprenticeship learning the blacksmith's trade.
Gained Fame as a Blacksmith
In 1825, he began his career as a journeyman blacksmith and soon gained considerable fame for his careful workmanship and ingenuity. His highly polished hay forks and shovels especially were in great demand throughout western Vermont. But business conditions in Vermont became depressed in the mid-1830s, and the future looked gloomy for the ambitious young blacksmith. Many natives of Vermont emigrated to the West, and the tales of golden opportunity that filtered back to Vermont so stirred John Deere's enthusiasm that he decided to dispose of his business and join the pioneers. He left his native town for Illinois. 1837 John Deere develops the steel walking plow. Plows had evolved for thousands of years and worked well in soil previously farmed. Plowing the Illinois prairie for the first time was hampered by soil that stuck to the plow. John Deere curved a broken steel sawmill blade that let the soil slide off the plow. Animal-drawn plows were the heart of John Deere business for the next eight decades.
In 1843, Deere entered a business partnership with Leonard Andrus and purchased land for the construction of a new two-story factory along the Rock River in Illinois. This factory, named the "L. Andrus Plough Manufactory", produced about 100 plows in 1842 and approximately 400 plows during the next year. Despite the success, Deere's partnership with Andrus ended in 1848, when Deere relocated to Moline, Illinois in order to have access to the railroad and the Mississippi River. In Moline, Deere formed a partnership with Robert Tate and John Gould and quickly built a new 1,440 square feet factory in 1848.
In 1853 John Deere bought out Tate and Gould's interests in the company in 1853, the same year that he was joined in the business by his son Charles Deere.
In 1863 John Deere makes the Hawkeye Riding Cultivator, the first John Deere implement adapted for riding.
Ten years after he developed his first plow, John Deere was producing 1,000 plows a year. In those early years of his business, Deere laid down several precepts that have been followed faithfully since then by the company he founded. Among them was his insistence on high standards of quality. John Deere vowed: "I will never put my name on a product that does not have in it the best that is in me."
One of his early partners chided him for constantly making changes in design. His partner said his work was unnecessary because the farmers had to take whatever they produced. Deere is said to have replied, "They haven't got to take what we make and somebody else will beat us, and we will lose our trade." Deere & Company has continued throughout its history to place a strong emphasis on product development and improvement. It has consistently devoted a higher share of its income to product research and development than most other companies in its industries.
Сопоставьте начало и окончание предложений
1. 1837 John Deere develops
2. Animal-drawn plows were
3. In 1863 John Deere makes
4. John Deere vowed: "I will never put my name on a product
a) the Hawkeye Riding Cultivator, the first John Deere implement adapted for riding.
b) that does not have in it the best that is in me."
c) the steel walking plow.
d) the heart of John Deere business for the next eight decades.
3. Рассмотрите хронологию изобретений компании Джона Дира
JOHN DEERE TIMELINE
Тема 9. Мой техникум
My Technical School
Прочитайте и запомните следующие слова и словосочетания
vocational and technical school
to follow the advice
to make a choice
a tractor-driver of agricultural production
a railway technical school
a vegetable grower
a chef – baker
The seller of food products
A master of agriculture
An owner of the estate
Initial vocational education
профучилище и техникум
тракторист-машинист сельскохозяйственного производства
парикмахер "визитная карточка"
продавец продовольственных товаров
мастер сельскохозяйственного производства
начальное профессиональное образование
2. Прочитайте и переведите текст
Finishing school is the beginning of the independent life for millions of school leavers. Many roads are opened before them: vocational and technical schools, institutes and universities. But it is not an easy thing to choose a profession out of more than 2,000 existing in the world. Some pupils follow the advice of their parents, others can't decide even after leaving school.
As for me, I made my choice long ago. I want to be a motorcar mechanic. I entered The Technical School number 128. Now it is named the Kartalinsky Diversified Technical School.
The Kartalinsky agricultural school No. 3 was formed on the basis of the railway technical school in 1959. The educational groups were 16. It was trained as a tractor – driver. Only guys studied at school and they got a special form.
In 1968 the hallmark of the schools became the tractor Fordzon-Putilovets that had been brought together from spare details. Children turned themselves missing details.
The tractor took part in all festive town demonstrations and was erected to a pedestal.
The Technical School had had specialties since 1989: a cook, a seamstress, a vegetable grower, a driver, an electric welder, a hairdresser.
We not only learn general subjects, but receive a specialty there. It gives education in many areas:
- A tractor- driver of agricultural production
- a welder
- a chef - baker
- a seller of food products
- a master of agriculture
- an owner of the estate
- a mechanic
The Technical School bases its work on state standard and offers the students very wide and complex education.
The academic year in the technical school begins on 1 September, and is divided into two terms (semesters). Students take exams at the end of each semester. The course of study lasts 3 years. Our teachers deliver lectures and hold seminars on different subjects such as: physics, chemistry, mathematics, applied electrical engineering, motor transport, social sciences, foreign languages and many others.
During the third years the students specialize in their main areas of interest. In the third year they are required to write a diploma work. The aim of it is to train the students in individual research, in planning investigations and in presenting their results in a written report.
The diploma work could thus be the beginning of a research career or lead to employment in industry.
After graduating from the Technical School the students get the Diploma in Initial vocational education.
In a high-speed century of cars it is impossible to live without a profession of the motorcar mechanic. Who as not he can find a cause of defect and will eliminate it. Such expert can carry out the most different types of works in car services. Now the automobile organizations are engaged as elimination of small malfunction of the car and renovation, and a complete recovery of the broken car.
3. Ответьте на вопросы
1. When was the Kartalinsky agricultural school No. 3 formed?
2. How many were there educational groups?
3. What was a hallmark of the schools?
4. What professions are educated in the Kartalinsky Diversified Technical School?
5. What subjects do students study?
6. When do the students write a diploma work?
7. Can the diploma work lead to employment in industry?
8. After graduating from the Technical School you'll get the Diploma in Initial vocational education, won't you?
9. Do you live at the hostel?
10. Do you use computers in the computer classes? What for?
11. Do you agree that every qualified specialist at any field should have good foreign languages skills?
2. Кто как не автомеханик найдёт причину неисправности и устранит её.
3. В автосервисах такой специалист может выполнять самые различные виды работ.
4. В настоящее время автомобильные организации занимаются как устранением небольшой неисправности автомобиля и косметическим ремонтом, так и полным восстановлением разбитой машины.
5. Переведите на английский язык
Чтобы работать по профессии автомеханика, недостаточно простого знания устройства автомобиля. Здесь необходимо знать виды неисправностей и пути их устранения, необходимы навыки работы с диагностическим оборудованием, знание правильной разборки и сборки узлов и агрегатов автомобиля.