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Partnership A group of people provide the capital, set up the company and manage

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A group of people provide the capital, set up the company and manage it together. All partners are responsible for the debts of the partnership, and profits and losses are shared between them.

Limited company.

In a limited company the capital is divided into shares, which are held by shareholders. There are two types of limited company: a private limited company and a public limited company.

In a private limited company, all shareholders must agree before any shares can be bought or sold. In a public limited company, shares are bought and sold freely, for example on the stock exchange.

Most companies are made up of three groups of people: the shareholders (who provide the capital), the management and the workforce.

At the top of the company hierarchy is the Board of Directors, headed by the Chairperson or President. The Board is responsible for policy decisions and strategy. It usually appoints a Chief Executive Officer, who has overall responsibility for the running of the business. Senior managers head the various departments within the company, which may include the following.


Public Relations Marketing and Sales

Information Technology or IT Research and Development or R and D

Personnel or Human Resources Production

  1. sole proprietor [səul prəˈpraɪətə]

индивидуальный предприниматель

  1. partnership [ˈpɑ:tnəʃɪp]


  1. limited company [ˈlɪmɪtɪd ˈkʌmpənɪ]

private limited company

public limited company

компания с ограниченной ответственностью
закрытое акционерное общество

открытое акционерное общество с ограниченной ответственностью

  1. to provide [prəˈvaɪd]


  1. to have unlimited liability

[hæv ʌnˈlɪmɪtɪd ˌlaɪəˈbɪlɪtɪ]

нести неограниченную ответственность (финансовую)

  1. assets [ˈæsets]

personal assets

активы (собственность, имущество)

личное имущество

  1. overall responsibility [əuvər'ɔːl rɪsˌpɔnsəˈbɪlɪtɪ]

полная ответственность

  1. losses [ˈlɔsiz]

to make losses


нести убытки

  1. to share [ʃɛə]

All managers share responsibility for the company.

a share

Shares of our company are freely sold on the Stock Exchange.

a shareholder

делить, разделять

Все менеджеры разделяют ответственность за дела компании.


Акции нашей компании свободно

продаются на фондовой бирже


  1. a stock exchange [stɔk ɪksˈtʃeɪndʒ]

фондовая биржа

  1. workforce (staff) [ˈwə:kfɔ:s]

персонал, рабочая сила

  1. hierarchy [ˈhaɪərɑ:kɪ]


  1. to appoint [əˈpɔɪnt]

He has been appointed Head of the Marketing Department


Он был назначен главой отдела


  1. to manage smth [ˈmænɪdʒ]

to manage a company


senior manager

управлять чем-либо

управлять компанией

администрация компании, руководство компании

старший менеджер

  1. strategy [ˈstrætɪdʒɪ]


  1. chief executive officer (CEO)

[tʃi:f ɪɡˈzekjutɪv ˈɔfɪsə]

управляющий директор, топ-менеджер

  1. Chairperson [tʃɛəˈpə:sn]


  1. Board of Directors [bɔ:d ɔv dɪˈrektəz]

Совет Директоров

  1. Public Relations [ˈpʌblɪk rɪˈleɪʃənz]

отдел по связям с общественностью

  1. Information Technology [ˌɪnfəˈmeɪʃən tekˈnɔlədʒɪ]

отдел информационных технологий

  1. Personnel (Human Resources) [ˌpə:səˈnel]

отдел кадров

  1. Research and Development [rɪˈsə:tʃ ænd dɪˈveləpmənt]

отдел научных исследований и опытно-конструкторских разработок

  1. Production [prəˈdʌkʃən]

производственный отдел

  1. Выполните задания.

1. Answer the Questions

1. What are the most common forms of business?

2. What is the simplest way of starting a business?

3. Who provides the capital for a sole proprietor?

4. Who is responsible for the sole proprietor’s debts?

5. Who provides the capital for a partnership?

6. Who is responsible for the partnership’s debts?

7. What two types of limited companies can you name?

8. What is the difference between them?

9. Where are shares sold and bought?

10. What groups of people are most companies made up of?

11. Who is responsible for policy decisions and strategy of the company?

12. Who heads the Board of Directors?

13. Who appoints the Chief Executive Officer?

14. What are the Chief Executive Officer’s responsibilities?

15. What departments do companies generally have?

2 Read the statements and say whether they are true (T) or false (F). Correct the false ones.

1. The sole proprietor gets his capital from the shareholders.

2. The sole proprietor is not responsible for the debts of his company.

3. A partnership can only consist of two people.

4. All partners share profits and losses.

5. In a private limited company shares are sold freely.

6. The Board of Directors is responsible for the everyday running of the business.

7. Senior managers are responsible for policy decisions and strategy in the company.

6. There may be several senior managers in the company.
3. Match the words and expressions with their definitions

  1. public relations

  1. управляющий директор

  1. liability

  1. рабочая сила

  1. chief executive officer

  1. биржа

  1. a loss

  1. убытки

  1. an asset

  1. связи с общественностью

  1. workforce

  1. индивидуальный предприниматель

  1. a stock exchange

  1. назначить

  1. a sole proprietor

  1. акция

  1. to appoint

  1. имущество

  1. a share

  1. обязательство

5. Give the English equivalents 1.

1. личное имущество

2. индивидуальный предприниматель

3. активы

4. нести убытки

5. акционеры

6. совет директоров

7. полная ответственность

8. фондовая биржа

9. назначать

10. управлять компанией

11. связи с общественностью

12. отдел кадров

13. рабочая сила

14. информационные технологии

Text 4

  1. Прочтите и письменно переведите текст.

When a company needs to recruit or employ new people, it may decide to advertise the job or position in a newspaper. People who are interested can then apply for the job by sending in a letter of application and a curriculum vitae or CV (US resume) containing details of their education and experience. A company may also ask candidates to complete a standard application form. The company’s Human Resources Department will then select the most suitable applications and prepare a short list of candidates, who are invited to attend an interview. Another way for a company to hire is by using the services of a recruitment agency (US search firm) who will provide them with a list of suitable candidates.

Headhunters or executive search firms specialize in finding the right person for the right job. The advantages for the employer are that it does not have to organize the costly and time-consuming process of advertising, selecting and interviewing suitable candidates. In some cases, the search firm may already have a list of people with appropriate skills for the job. In other cases it may help evaluate the candidates’ skills in order to select the most suitable person for the job.

Nowadays there are also a lot of online job-search sites which reach more people and offer higher efficiency than traditional ways of recruiting staff. The online job market works well for workers and employees who know what they want.


  1. to recruit [rɪˈkru:t] / employ [ɪmˈplɔɪ] / hire [ˈhaɪə] (people, staff, employees)

принимать на работу, нанимать (людей, персонал, сотрудников)

  1. to advertise a job or position in a newspaper


The job was advertised in a local newspaper.

an advertisement ( an ad)


The advertisement attracted a lot of people.

давать объявление о работе или вакантной должности в газете
Объявление о вакансии было помещено в местной газете.


Объявление привлекло внимание многих людей.

  1. to apply [əˈplaɪ] for a job

Не applied for the job of sales assistant.

an application [ˌæplɪˈkeɪʃən]

a letter of application

an application form

to complete an application form

All applications must be completed in ink.

подать заявление на работу

Он подал заявление на работу продавца.



форма заявления, бланк заявления

заполнить бланк заявления

Все бланки заявлений должны быть заполнены чернилами.

  1. a candidate [ˈkændɪdɪt]


  1. a curriculum vitae (CV) [kəˈrɪkjuləm ˈvaɪtə]

( Am E resume [] )

биографическая справка, резюме

  1. experience [ɪksˈpɪərɪəns]


  1. to select [sɪˈlekt]

отбирать, выбирать

  1. a short list of candidates

I was put on a short list of candidates.

короткий список кандидатов

Меня внесли в короткий список кандидатов.

  1. to interview smb [ˈɪntəvju:]

an interview

I have an interview for a job at Microsoft next week.

to attend an interview

проводить собеседование с кем-либо

собеседование, интервью

У меня собеседование на работу в компании Microsoft на следующей неделе.

прийти на собеседование

  1. a recruitment agency [rɪˈkru:tmənt]

( Am E search firm)

to search (for) [sə:tʃ]


рекрутинговое агентство


  1. to provide smb with smth [prəˈvaɪd]

The lecture provided him with an

opportunity to meet one of his heroes.

предоставлять кому-либо что-либо
Лекция предоставила ему возможность встретиться с одним из его героев.

  1. suitable [ˈsju:təbl]


  1. headhunter ( an executive search firm)


«охотник за головами» - фирма, осуществляющая подбор персонала на управленческие должности высокого уровня, зачастую переманивая сотрудников из других фирм

  1. to specialize in smth [ˈspeʃəlaɪz]

Our company specializes in European tours.

специализироваться в чем-либо

Наша компания специализируется на турах в Европу.

  1. to employ [ɪmˈplɔɪ]

Last year we employed six managers.

an employer [ɪmˈplɔɪə]

The factory is the largest employer in the town.

an employee [ˌemplɔɪˈi:]

Their employees work a ten-hour day.

использовать (в качестве работника)

В прошлом году у нас работали шесть менеджеров.


Эта фабрика – самый крупный работодатель в городе.


У их сотрудников десятичасовой рабочий день.

  1. costly [ˈkɔstlɪ]


  1. time-consuming [ˈtaɪmkənˈsju:mɪŋ]


  1. appropriate [ə'prəuprɪət]


  1. skills [skɪl]

All our employees have good computer skills.


Все наши сотрудники имеют хорошие навыки работы на компьютере.

  1. to evaluate [ɪˈvæljueɪt]

The performance of each employee is evaluated once a year.


Работа каждого сотрудника оценивается раз в год.

  1. in order to [ˈɔ:də]

What must I do in order to convince them?

для того, чтобы

Что я должен сделать, чтобы убедить их?

  1. to reach smth / smb [ri:tʃ]

The news reached him at last.

достичь кого-либо или чего-либо

Новости достигли его, наконец.

  1. efficiency [ɪˈfɪʃnsi]

We need to improve our efficiency if we want to become more profitable.

  1. job-search site []


Мы должны повысить эффективность нашей работы, если мы хотим стать более прибыльными.

сайт, предлагающий помощь в поиске работы

  1. Выполните задания.

1. Answer the Questions

1. In what way can a company recruit new people?

2. How do people apply for a job?

3. What does a curriculum vitae contain?

4. What is a curriculum vitae called in American English?

5. Who selects the most suitable candidates and prepares a short


6. Where are the selected candidates invited?

7. What does a recruitment agency do?

8. What do executive search firms specialize in?

9. What are the advantages of using the services of an executive search firm?

10. What advantages do online job-search sites offer to job-seekers and employers?

11. What should you know to succeed in finding a job on the online job market?
2. Read the statements and say whether they are true (T) or false (F). Correct the false ones.

1. All the people who apply for a job are invited to attend an interview.

2. Recruitment agencies help companies to find suitable candidates.

3. People apply for jobs by phoning the companies’ Human Resources Departments.

4. Executive search firms help find candidates for low-level positions (должности низшего уровня).

5. Using the services of executive search firms saves the companies time and money.

6. If you don’t know what kind of job you want,online job sites will help you to find a job.
3. Match the words and expressions with their definitions

  1. a curriculum vitae

  1. income from business activities

  1. headhunting

  1. a letter that you send with a document, for example a CV, explaining why you are sending the document and giving any other information that is necessary

  1. covering letter

  1. persuading someone to leave their job and go to work for another company in a similar position

  1. to select

  1. the regular paid work that you do for an employer

  1. employer

  1. to find new people to work for an organization or company

  1. skills

  1. knowledge or skill that you have from doing a particular job

  1. revenue

  1. someone that a company is considering for a job

  1. an interview

  1. to choose someone or something from a group

  1. a candidate

  1. a person, company, or organization that pays someone to work for them as a member of their staff

  1. experience

  1. a summary of your education and previous jobs which you use when looking for a job

  1. a job

  1. the ability to do something well, usually as a result of experience or training

  1. to recruit

  1. a formal meeting where someone is asked questions to find out if they are suitable for a job

4. Give the English equivalents 1.

подать заявление о приеме на работу

2. «охотник за головами»

3. прийти на собеседование

4. принимать на работу, нанимать

5. заполнить бланк заявления

6. давать объявление о работе или вакантной должности в газете

7. специализироваться в чем-либо

8. навык, умение


10. убедитесь в том, что

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