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Государственный образовательный стандарт по дисциплине «английский язык»




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ТипГосударственный образовательный стандарт
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5. Articles and Nouns

Артикль. Перед существительным в английском языке обычно ставиться артикль. Выделяют три артикля: a (неопределенный), the (определенный) и нулевой. Например, a book, an apple, the book, the sun, milk, bread.

Неопределенный артикль имеет 2 формы: a, an. Он употребляется только с исчисляемыми существительными в единственном числе, следовательно, он является признаком единственного числа существительного. Определенный артикль обозначает отношение существительного к классу предметов.

Определенный артикль the употребляется с именами существительными как в единственном, так во множественном числе. Он указывает на то, что 1) предмет или лицо является выделенным из всех лиц (или предметов) данного класса, 2) лицо (или предмет) упоминались раньше.
Употребление артиклей

1. Артикли не употребляются с собственными именами, к которым относятся:

1) имена и фамилии людей: Peter

2) названия городов: Rome, London

3) названия стран: England, Spain (the USA)

4) названия континентов: America, Asia, Europe, Australia, Africa

5) названия улиц, площадей: King Street, Oxford Circus

2. Существительные употребляются без артикля, когда они обозначают не определенное количество вещества, а лишь его называют. Milk, sugar, bread, salt.

3. Существительные употребляются с определенным артиклем, когда речь идет об определенном количестве вещества. Pass me the bread, please.

4. Существительные, обозначающие единственные предметы в мире, употребляются с определенным артиклем. The sun, the moon, the Saturn.

5. Названия океанов, морей, проливов, каналов, рек, озер, горных цепей и групп островов употребляются с определенным артиклем. The Black Sea, The Volga, the Alps, the Urals.

Имя существительное. Существительные имеют единственное и множественное число, а также они могут быть исчисляемые и неисчисляемые. Множественное число образуют существительные, которые можно сосчитать. Например, book – books, day – days, friend – friends. Если существительное заканчивается на – y с предшествующей согласной, то во множественном числе оно принимает окончание – es, а буква y меняется на i. Например, city – cities, factory – factories. Если букве y предшествует гласная, то добавляется окончание –s. Например, way – ways, key – keys, day – days. Если существительное заканчивается на – fe или – f, то f переходит в v, а затем добавляется окончание – es. Например, wife – wives, life – lives, half – halves, shelf – shelves. Если существительное оканчивается на – о с предшествующей согласной, то оно принимает окончание – es. Например, hero – heroes, cargo – cargoes (искл. photos, pianos). Случаи отклонения от общего правила: man – men, woman – women, child – children, foot – feet, goose – geese, tooth – teeth, mouse – mice. Некоторые существительные имеют одинаковую форму в единственном и множественном числах. Например, sheepsheep, deerdeer, swineswine. Только в единственном числе употребляются существительные неисчисляемые: water, steel, snow и отвлеченные понятия: love, friendship, success, money, hair, fruit, information. Только во множественном числе употребляются: news, goods, scissors, trousers, spectacles.

У существительных в английском языке есть два падежа: общий и притяжательный. Притяжательный падеж образуется прибавлением апострофа и буквы s к форме существительного в общем падеже. Например, student – student’s book, но во множественном числе teachers’ room, boys’ father.

Рода у английских существительных нет. Существительное может быть подлежащим и другими частями речи. Например, играть роль определения для другого существительного: the coal company, the laboratory work.
Упражнения

Поставьте вместо пропусков артикли, где необходимо.

Isabel and I live in … room in … hotel. I get up at … five o’clock and have … show. Isabel stays in … bed. I start to work at six in … morning and Isabel starts at six in … evening. We meet at three o’clock in … afternoon when I finish working. I go back to our room and Isabel makes … late lunch for us.


2. … tea, ... elephant, … box, … house, … onions, … hour, … cup, … egg, …union, … plates, … salt, … eye, … uncle, … blouse, … farmers, … pepper, …horse, … water, …money, …milk.
3. Madonna is … famous singer. She acts in … several films as well. She wrote … book some time ago that became very popular. She travels all over … world giving … concerts. She has many … hit songs already and will make more records in … future. She will act in … more films too. She became famous in … 1980’s and she is a millionaires now.
4. Образуйте множественное число существительных.

table, girl, garden, kitchen, wolf, cat, fly, fox, woman, man, bed, baby, shelf, foot, rose, bus, ball, sister, school, exercise.


5. secretary, office, day, manager, work, bank, sandwich, morning, factory, company, living-room, home, pen, document , brother, note, partner, text, boy, teacher.
6. Поставьте существительные во множественное или единственное число, вместо пропусков.

I have got great … (new). I have gotten a … (letter) from Richard. It came last week. He has invited me to visit him in … (the State). That’s great! I have never been to … (America). I have been abroad before. I have travelled to … (Poland) as a … (tourist). I have also been on a business … (trip) to … (Hungary). But I have never been outside … (Europe).

Rich writes that his senior … (partner) is away on … (business), so he has not discussed the … (matter) with him yet. That is why he is sending me a private … (invitation). But of course I should visit their … (company) to discuss … (business). The best … (time) for my trip is in June. My … (visit) is to last a few … (week). I am to visit … (New York) and … (Washington). I hope to see some of the … (sight) too!
6. Pronouns

Выделяют несколько групп местоимений. Личные местоимения: I-я, You-ты, He-он, She- она, It-оно, We-мы, You-Вы, They-они. Они могут быть в именительном падеже или объектном. В объектном падеже (give) они изменяются следующим образом: me-меня, мне, you-тебя, тебе, him-ему, его, her-ее, ей, it-ему, его, us-нам, нас, you-вам, вас, them-им, их. К притяжательным местоимениям относятся: my-мой, моя, your-твой, твоя, his- его, her- ее, our-наш, your-Ваш, their-их. Возвратные местоимения: myself -сам, себя, yourself-сам, сами, себя, himself-сам, себя, herself-сама, себя, itself-сам, сама, само, ourselves-сами, себя, yourselves-сами, себя, themselves-сами, себя. Указательные местоимения: this-это, этот, that-то, тот, these-эти, those-те. Вопросительные местоимения: who-кто, what-что, whom- кому, how-как, whose-чей, when-когда, where- где.


Упражнения

  1. Заполните пропуски нужными местоимениями.

I am a worker. … name is Sergey. Ted is a schoolboy. … marks are good. Ann and Jane are engineers. … sons are schoolchildren. Please give me … exercise – book, Peter. We are secretaries. … friends are secretaries too. What are … names ? … name is Nick and … name is Jack.
2. We are students. This is … classroom. The door in … classroom is white. I am at home now. … room is small, but … is light and clean. These are … sisters. … names are Mary and Ann. Open … books, please. Sit down, Peter. … mark is good. Is … a teacher? Are these boys and girls … pupils? This man is an engineer. … surname is Petrov.
3. May … ask … a question? Can … speak English? … can, but some of … friends cannot. Do … know why? Because … are afraid of making a mistake. But … am not. … also have a little secret: … wife is an English teacher. So … can learn English at home. That is why … children can speak English too. Of course, Lucy speaks English the best. … speak … worse than … but better than … children. … parents in – law know English worst of all. … cannot speak it at all. … can only understand a few words. … always tell … : if … want to speak English, speak it! Nowadays everybody must know English.
7. Adjectives

Прилагательное – это часть речи, которая определяет существительное. Большинство прилагательных имеют степени сравнения. Выделяют сравнительную и превосходную степени. Для образования степеней сравнения используются суффиксы –er и –est. Если прилагательное сложное, то используются слова more или most. Например: clever – cleverer – the cleverest, beautiful – more beautiful – the most beautiful. Некоторые прилагательные образуют степени сравнения не по правилу: good – better – the best, bad – worse – the worst, many (much) – more – the most, little – less – the least, far – farther (further) – the farthest (furthest), old – older (elder) – the oldest (eldest). В написании у прилагательных может удваиваться гласная и буква –у меняться на –i (big-bigger-the biggest; easy-easier-the easiest).


Упражнения

  1. Образуйте степени сравнения прилагательных.

heavy, high, deep, cold, white, black, ugly, brave, nice, light, pleasant, polite, gentle, careful, strong, fat, dry, important, near, merry.
2. Употребите прилагательные в нужной степени.

On the edge of our family of planets, or solar system, is Pluto, which is (cold) of all the planets and (far) from the Sun. Surprisingly, (hot) planet is not Mercury, although no other planet is (close) to the Sun. Mercury, with a surface temperature of about +420 C is not (hot) than Venus, which has surface temperature of about +475 C. Mercury is (small) of the nine planets and Jupiter is (large) in the solar system.


There are many big cities in the world. One of (large) in the world is Cairo in Egypt. However, Shanghais and Tokyo are (large). But Mexico is considered to be (populated) city in the world. Old cities and towns are (interesting) places to visit, than modern ones. But most modern cities are (comfortable) to live in, they are usually (dirty) than small towns and villages. But still my home city is (good) place for me.
Содержание:

1. Construction there is / are.

2. The Present Continuous Tense.

3. The Past Continuous Tense.

4. The Future Continuous Tense.

5. The Present Perfect Tense.

6. The Past Perfect Tense.

7. The Future Perfect Tense.

8. Prepositions.

9. The Infinitive.

10. The Participle.
1. Construction there is / are

В английском языке предложения часто начинаются со слов there is/are. Эта конструкция служит для построения предложения, указывающего наличие или отсутствие кого – либо или чего – либо в определенном месте. На столе книга. There is a book on the table. Книга на столе. The book is on the table.


Упражнения

1. Вставьте there is / are в необходимой форме и переведите предложения.

1. …. some magazines and a telephone on this table.

2. … many children in the park now.

3. … a gas-stove and a fridge in our kitchen.

4. … a football match on TV last night.

5. Excuse me, … a restaurant near here?

6. … a table and four chairs in my parents’ room.

7. How many students … in your group?

8. … many pencils and a pen in my pen.

9. … a theatre here in three years.

10. … a blackboard, a table and many chairs in our classroom.

11. … a telephone in my room.

12. … a lot of people at the station.

13. … many French books in this library.

14. … some interesting programmes on TV the day after tomorrow.

15. … my friend at the airport to meet me when I arrived yesterday.


2. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на конструкцию there is / are.

1. В нашем городе много театров и музеев.

2. В этой комнате три окна.

3. На нашей улице много деревьев.

4. В нашем учебнике есть картинки.

5. В вазе стоят цветы.

6. В нашей группе много студентов.


2. The Present Continuous Tense

Время Present Continuous употребляется для выражения действия, которое происходит в данный момент. Для образования этого времени используется вспомогательный глагол TO BE (изменяется по лицам и числам) и основной глагол в первой форме с инговым суффиксом.



Утвердительное предложение строится с помощью вспомогательного глагола TO BE (изменяется по лицам и числам) и основного глагола в первой форме с инговым суффиксом. (We are going to the seaside next summer; She is playing the piano well now.).

В вопросительном предложении меняется порядок слов. (Are you going to the seaside next summer? Is she playing the piano well?). Are you going to the seaside next summer? (общий). When are you going to the seaside? (специальный). Who is going to the seaside next summer? (к подлежащему). Are you going to the seaside next summer or next winter? (альтернативный). You are going to the seaside every summer, aren’t you? (разделительный).



Отрицательное предложение строится добавлением частицы NOT к вспомогательному глаголу. (You are not going to the seaside next summer. She is not playing the piano well.).

Некоторые глаголы не употребляются во временах Continuous: hear – слышать, see – видеть, watch – смотреть, feel – чувствовать, observe – обозревать, notice – замечать, know – знать, think – думать, consider – считать, believe – верить, suppose – предполагать, expect – ожидать, imagine – представлять, want – хотеть, wish – желать, mean – означать, intend – намереваться.


Упражнения

1. Составьте диалоги по образцу.

Model: -Is Kate busy now? (bake/cake)

-Yes, she is.

-What is she doing?

-She is baking a cake?

1. – Is Tom busy now? (read/a book)

2. – Is Susan very busy now? (have/dinner)

3. – Are the girls busy now? (lay/the table)

4. – Are you very busy just now? (look for/my new hat)

5. - Is your wife busy now? (chatter/over the phone)


2. Переведите предложения.

1. Я пишу стихотворение своей девушке. 2. Мои родители играют в теннис в саду. 3. Дети делают домашнее задание сейчас. 4. Мой сын смотрит телевизор сейчас. 5. Нэнси готовит сейчас обед. 6. Я слушаю радио. 7. Сейчас она пьет чай. 8. Мы слушаем учителя.


3. Переведите предложения из Present Simple в Present Continuous, добавляя выражения: now, today, at this moment, at present.

1. I write a letter. 2. Richard walks to school. 3. We live in that house. 4. My father works in that house. 5. The book lies on the table. 6. The train stops at the station. 7. We travel to London. 8. The gardener cuts down a tree. 9. John comes home. 10. The shopkeeper ties up the parcel.


4. Поставьте глаголы в Present Simple или Present Continuous в следующих предложениях. Переведите предложения.

1. Elizabeth … the piano well. She … it now. (play)

2. My father … to his office every day. He … there now. (drive)

3. It … today. It usually … in winter. (rain).

4. He generally … Greek, but he … English today. (speak)

5. Mother … toast in the kitchen just now. She usually … toast for breakfast. (make)

6. The sun … in the West. It … now, and soon it will be dark. (set)

7. My sister always … the dresses for her doll. She … one now. (sew)

8. The telephone bell … again. It sometimes … twenty times a day. (ring)

9. John … his homework now. He usually … it in the evening. (do)

10. “What is your father doing?” “He … in an armchair … his paper and … a cigarette.” (sit, read, smoke)

11. Richard … to school every day. (go)

12. We … about the tenses of verbs in our class today. (learn)

13. Careless students never … their work well. (do)

14. That fat man … next door to us. (live)
3. The Past Continuous Tense

Время Past Continuous употребляется для выражения действия, которое происходило в данный момент в прошлом (по отношению к какому – либо другому действию). Для образования этого времени используется вспомогательный глагол TO BE в прошедшем времени (изменяется по лицам и числам) и основной глагол в первой форме с инговым суффиксом.



Утвердительное предложение строится с помощью вспомогательного глагола TO BE в прошедшем времени (изменяется по лицам и числам) и основного глагола в первой форме с инговым суффиксом. (We were going to the seaside next summer; She was playing the piano well yesterday.).

В вопросительном предложении меняется порядок слов. (Were you going to the seaside next summer? Was she playing the piano well yesterday?). Were you going to the seaside next summer? (общий). When were you going to the seaside? (специальный). Who was going to the seaside next summer? (к подлежащему). Are you going to the seaside next summer or next winter? (альтернативный). You were going to the seaside every summer, weren’t you? (разделительный).



Отрицательное предложение строится добавлением частицы NOT к вспомогательному глаголу. (You were not going to the seaside next summer. She was not playing the piano well yesterday.).
Упражнения

1. Раскройте скобки, употребив Past Continuous. Переведите предложения.

1. Where was your brother? He … (meet) his friend at the station.

2. I did not know what you (speak) about.

3. What … your mother (do)? I think she … (to lay) the table.

4. Jim is in Paris at the moment. He … (stay) at the Metropol Hotel.

5. I was busy tonight. I … (have) a party.

6. You may take my car. I … (not/need) it at the moment.

7. What is the title of the film you … (watch)?

8. He did not understand what he … (read).
2. Раскройте скобки, употребив Past Continuous или Past Simple. Переведите предложения.

1. She … (meet) Helen when she … (walk) along the street.

2. Last night I … (read) in bed when suddenly I (hear) a knock at the door.

3. Ann … (wait) for me when I … (arrive).

4. She … (play) the piano when you … (enter) the room.

5. While she … (cook) dinner I … (lay) the table.


3. В следующей истории поставьте глаголы в Present Simple, Past Simple, Future Simple, Past Continuous. Переведите историю.
The Rich Lady and The Poor Beggar
A wealthy lady (live) in a big hotel in New York that overlooked the Park. One day as she (look) out of the window she (see) a very poor man dressed in rags. He (sit) on a wooden seat and (look) up at the windows of the hotel. She (look) the next day and the next, and the next, and every day he (look) up at the windows of the hotel. At last one day while she (drive) in her car, she told the chauffeur to stop by the seat where the man (sit). She (get) out and (speak) to him and (ask) him why he (look) at the window.

“Lady,” he (say), “I (sit) on this seat every day and I (sleep) on this seat every night and all the time I (think) that some day I (sleep) in that hotel.”

The Lady said, “I (make) your dream come true; tonight you (sleep) in the best room in the hotel.”

The next morning as she (sit) at breakfast she (see) the man and (call) him to her table. She (say), “How did you sleep?”

“Lady,” he (say), “my seat in the park was better.”

“Surely not,” (say) the lady.

“Yes,” he (say), “you see I (sleep) on the seat every night; but every night I (dream) I (am) in the soft warm bed in the hotel. But all last night while I (sleep), I (dream) that I was back on the cold hard seat. So I (go) back to my seat in the park tonight.”
4. The Future Continuous Tense

Время Future Continuous употребляется для выражения длительного действия, которое находится в развитии в определенный момент времени в будущем. Этот момент может быть выражен 1) указанием времени или 2) другим действием в будущем (в Present Simple). Для образования этого времени используется вспомогательный глагол WILL BE и основной глагол в первой форме с инговым суффиксом.



Утвердительное предложение строится с помощью вспомогательного глагола WILL BE и основного глагола в первой форме с инговым суффиксом. (We will be going to the seaside when you come to visit us; She will be playing the piano well at 6 tomorrow.).

В вопросительном предложении меняется порядок слов. Will you be going to the seaside when you come to visit us? Will she be playing the piano well at 6 tomorrow? (общий). When will you be going to the seaside? (специальный). Who will be going to the seaside when you come to see us? (к подлежащему). Will we be going to the seaside next summer or next winter when you come to see us? (альтернативный). We will be going to the seaside when you come to see us, won’t we? (разделительный).



Отрицательное предложение строится добавлением частицы NOT к вспомогательному глаголу. (We will not be going to the seaside when you come to visit us. She will not be playing the piano well at 6 tomorrow.).
Упражнения

1. Ответьте на вопросы, используя Future Continuous. Переведите предложения.

1. What will she be doing on Sunday? (make a dress for a party)

2. What will he be doing tomorrow? (pack/for his travel)

3. What will they be doing at the concept tonight? (sing modern songs)

4. What will we be doing at the party? (dance)

5. What will Jane be doing at the airport? (see off her friend)

6. What will the boys be doing on their holiday? (swim and go for walks)
2. Укажите, что вы будете делать в конкретно указанное время, употребив Future Continuous. Переведите предложения.

1. Tomorrow afternoon I’m going to play tennis from 3 till 5 o’clock. So, at 4 o’clock I … .

2. Ann is going to clean the flat tomorrow. She will be busy from 8 till 10 o’clock. So, at 9 I ..

3. Mary is going to stay with her sister from 6 till 7 o’clock. So, at 6.30 Mary … .

4. Mother is going to visit her friend on Sunday from 5 till 8 p.m. So, at 7 p.m. mother … .

5. Our father is going to repair the car next Saturday from 9 till 11 in the morning. So, next Saturday at 10 o’clock our father… .


5. The Present Perfect Tense

Время Present Perfect употребляется для выражения действия, которое только что завершилось и результат виден на лицо. Для образования этого времени используется вспомогательный глагол TO HAVE в настоящем времени (изменяется по лицам и числам) и основной глагол в третьей форме.



Утвердительное предложение строится с помощью вспомогательного глагола TO HAVE в настоящем времени (изменяется по лицам и числам) и основного глагола в третьей форме. (They have gone to the seaside just now; She has played the piano well just now.).

В вопросительном предложении меняется порядок слов. (Have they gone to the seaside just now? Has she played the piano just now?). Have they gone to the seaside just now? (общий). When have they gone to the seaside? (специальный). Who has gone to the seaside just now? (к подлежащему). Have they gone to the seaside this summer or just now? (альтернативный). They have gone to the seaside just now, haven’t they? (разделительный).



Отрицательное предложение строится добавлением частицы NOT к вспомогательному глаголу. (They have not gone to the seaside just now. She has not played the piano well just now.).
Упражнения

1. Исправьте неправильные предложения. Переведите предложения.

1. Tom arrived last week.

2. Have you seen Pam last week?

3. I have finished my work.

4. I have finished my work at two o’clock.

5. When have you finished your work?

6. George has graduated from school three years ago?

7. “Where is Ann?” She has gone to the movies.

8. Napoleon Bonaparte has died in 1821.

9. Have you been to Argentina?

10. I haven’t seen you at the party on Saturday.

2. Мэри 65 лет. У нее была интересная жизнь. Составьте предложения, которые расскажут о том, что она сделала. Переведите предложения.

1. (she / has / many different jobs) She …

2. (she / travel / to many places) She …

3. (she / do / a lot of interesting things) She …

4. (she / write / ten books) She …

5. (she / meet / a lot of interesting people) She …

6. (she / be / married five times) She…
3. Заполните пропуски глаголами из списка. Поставьте глаголы во время Present Perfect. Каждый глагол используйте один раз, за исключением to be (5 раз) и to have (2 раза). Переведите текст.

to travel, to meet, to hunt, have (2), to ride, to see, to live, to be (5), do


My grandfather is 96 years old. When he was born, Queen Victoria was still on the throne. Since then, there … four different kings and a queen on the throne of the United Kingdom. He … the Queen on several occasions. In 1959 he was a soldier in New Zealand when she came to visit, and in 1972 he went to a garden party at Buckingham Palace. He … a lot especially in the Far East. He … the Taj Mahal in India and the Pyramids in Egypt. He … big game in Africa, and … a camel across the Sahara Desert. He says that the most beautiful he … to is Kathmandu in Nepal. He … married twice. His first wife died when she was 32. He met his second wife while he was travelling round France by bike. He and his wife, Elenor … married for 50 years, and they … in the same cottage in the country since they got married. He says that he … never ill in his life. He … a cold sometimes, of course, but nothing serious. The secret of good health, according to my grandfather, is exercise. He goes swimming every day. He … since he was a boy. He also has a glass of whisky every night! He … certainly … an interesting life. I hope he lives to be a hundred!
6. The Past Perfect Tense

Время Past Perfect употребляется для выражения действия, которое произошло раньше, чем другое действие (в сложных предложениях). Для образования этого времени используется вспомогательный глагол TO HAVE в прошедшем времени и основной глагол в третьей форме.



Утвердительное предложение строится с помощью вспомогательного глагола TO HAVE в прошедшем времени и основного глагола в третьей форме. (They had already gone to the seaside when he entered the room.).

В вопросительном предложении меняется порядок слов. (Had they already gone to the seaside when he entered the room?). Had they gone to the seaside when he entered the room? (общий). When had they gone to the seaside? (специальный). Who had gone to the seaside when he entered the room? (к подлежащему). Had they gone to the seaside or to the library when he entered the room? (альтернативный). They had gone to the seaside when he entered the room, hadn’t they ? (разделительный).



Отрицательное предложение строится добавлением частицы NOT к вспомогательному глаголу. (They had not gone to the seaside when he entered the room.).
Упражнения

1. Соедините два предложения, используя время Past Perfect.

(a) John studied French, (b) He went to Paris.

(a) We arrived at the cinema, (b) The film started.

(a) Richard ate all the cakes, (b) Fred arrived home.

(a) The army commander studied all the maps of the district, (b) He made the attack.

(a) The gardener finished digging the garden. (b) He put in some cabbage plants.
2. Поставьте все глаголы во время Past Perfect. Переведите историю.

One evening Mr. Green was driving in his car along a lonely country road. He (be) to London where he (draw) £50 from the bank, and he was now returning home with the money which he (put) in his pocket book. At the loneliest part of the road a man in shabby, badly-fitting clothes stopped him and asked for a lift. Mr. Green told him to get into the car and continued on his way. As he talked to the man he learned that he (be) in prison for robbery and (break out) of prison two days ago. Mr. Green was very worried at the thought-of the £50 that he (put) in his pocket book. Suddenly he saw a police-car and had a bright idea. He just (reach) a small town where the speed limit was 30 miles an hour. He pressed down the accelerator and drove the car as fast as it would go. He looked back and saw that the police-car (see) him and (begin) to chase him. After a mile or so the police-car overtook him and ordered him to stop. A policeman got out and came to Mr. Green's car. Mr. Green (hope) that he could tell the policeman about the escaped robber, but the man (take) a gun out of his pocket and (put) it to Mr. Green's back. The policeman took out his notebook and pencil and said he wanted Mr. Green's name and address. Mr. Green asked to be taken to the police station but the policeman said, «No», I want your name and address now. You will have to appear at the police court later." So, Mr. Green gave the policeman his name and address. The policeman wrote it down, put his pocket book and pencil back in his pocket and gave Mr. Green a talk about dangerous driving. Then Mr. Green started up his car again and drove on. He (give up) all hope of his £50, but, just as he reached the outskirts of London, the passenger said he wanted to get out here. Mr. Green stopped the car; the man got out and said," Thanks for the lift. You've been good to me. This is the least I can do in return." And he handed Mr. Green the policeman's notebook.

While the policeman (talk) to Mr. Green, the thief (meal) the notebook.
3. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на время Past Perfect.

1. To our surprise he answered that he had learnt English before he had gone to the university. 2. The lesson was easier than we had expected. 3. At last she remained alone. The guests had left. 4. My friend said that his pronunciation had become better after he began to listen to the tape recorder. 5. He entered the institute after he had worked at the bank. 6. Unfortunately the train had left by the time we got to the railway station. 7. I had gone to bed and fallen asleep when somebody knocked at the door. 8. It became quiet in the house as the children had gone to sleep. 9. By the time I came the table had already been removed and my friends were dancing.


7. The Future Perfect Tense

Время Future Perfect употребляется для выражения идеи предшествия в будущем, т.е. действия которое произошло 1) к определенному моменту в будущем (She will have finished her work by 5 tomorrow. 2) раньше другого действия в будущем (The boy will have done his homework when his parents return home.). Для образования этого времени используется вспомогательный глагол WILL HAVE и основной глагол в третьей форме.



Утвердительное предложение строится с помощью вспомогательного глагола WILL HAVE и основного глагола в третьей форме. (They will have already gone to the seaside when he enters the room.).

В вопросительном предложении меняется порядок слов. (Will they have already gone to the seaside when he enters the room?). Will they have gone to the seaside when he enters the room? (общий). When will they have gone to the seaside? (специальный). Who will have gone to the seaside when he enters the room? (к подлежащему). Will they have gone to the seaside or to the library when he enters the room? (альтернативный). They will have gone to the seaside when he enters the room, won’t they? (разделительный).



Отрицательное предложение строится добавлением частицы NOT к вспомогательному глаголу. (They will have not gone to the seaside when he enters the room.).

Существуют специальные слова - подсказки, по которым можно определить, какое время употребить в предложении. Present Simple – every day (каждый день), every month (каждый месяц). Past Simple – yesterday (вчера), а year ago (год назад), Future Simple – next week (на следующей недели), next year (в следующем году), tomorrow (завтра). Present Continuous – now (сейчас). Past Continuous – at that moment (в тот момент). Present Perfect – just now (только что), already (уже). Past Perfect - just now (только что), already (уже). При переводе предложений в разные времена необходимо по смыслу вставлять эти слова и менять местоимения (если нужно).

Например: We (to cooperate) with your firm. (инфинитив).

We cooperate with your firm every year. (Present Simple).

Мы сотрудничаем с вашей фирмой каждый год.
We cooperated with your firm a year ago. (Past Simple).

Мы сотрудничали с вашей фирмой год назад.
We will cooperate with your firm next week. (Future Simple).

Мы будем сотрудничать с вашей фирмой на следующей недели.
We are cooperating with your firm now. (Present Continuous).

Мы сотрудничаем с вашей фирмой сейчас.
We were cooperating with your firm at that moment, when he learnt about it.

(Past Continuous).

Мы сотрудничали с вашей фирмой в тот момент, когда он узнал о ней.
We will be already cooperating with your firm when he learns about it. (Future Continuous).

Мы будем уже сотрудничать с вашей фирмой, когда он узнает о ней.
We have cooperated with your firm just now. (Present Perfect).

Мы начали сотрудничать с вашей фирмой только что.
We had already cooperated with your firm, when he learned about it.

(Past Perfect).

Мы уже сотрудничали с вашей фирмой, когда он узнал о ней.
We will have already cooperated with your firm by the time he learns about it. (Future Perfect).

Мы будем уже сотрудничать с вашей фирмой к тому времени, когда он узнает о ней.

Упражнения

1. Поставьте глаголы во время Future Perfect.

1. By half past seven we (have) supper.

2. The baker’s shop (close) by tea time.

3. By the end of the year I (read) three of Shakespeare’s plays.

4. Before his next visit he (be) to Australia.

5. I (finish) this work before you go away.

6. By this time next week you (take) your examination.

7. We (leave) the house before you get back.

8. In 1960 George Bernard Show (be) dead for ten years.

9. The game (start) before we have to go.

10. I hope it (stop) raining before we have to go.

11. When we see you again we (buy) the new car.

12. He (finish) the building of the house before summer.

13. The birds (fly) away before winter comes.

14. At Christmas Mr. Brown (teach) here for fifteen years.

15. I hope you (not forget) all about the Future Perfect tense by the next lesson.




  1. Заполните колонки, используя нужное время в предложениях.




Future Simple

Future Continuous

Future Perfect

1. I will speak.

I will be speaking.

I will have spoken.

2. He will work.







3. She will sew.







4. It will snow.







5. You will learn.







6. We will study.







7. They will dig.







8. The soldiers will fight.







9. The house will burn.







10. The sun will shine.








3. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на время Future Perfect.

1. I will have done my homework by six p.m. tomorrow. 2. By the time you finish cooking, they will have done their work. 3. When you come to me tomorrow, I will have read your book. 4. Will you have done this work by next Sunday? 5. I will have finished my letter by the secretor’s coming.


8. Prepositions

Предлоги выполняют важную роль в предложении, так как от них зависит смысл всего предложения.



Предлоги времени: inупотребляется для обозначения разных периодов времени (in my childhood – в детстве, in winter – зимой); atупотребляется для обозначения точного времени, не имеющего временной протяженности (at 7 p. m.); onупотребляется при обозначении времени с названиями дней недели и датами (on Monday – в понедельник, on Christmas – на рождество); duringупотребляется всегда с каким – либо конкретным событием, имеющим протяженность во времени (during the concert - во время концерта, during the meeting – во время встречи); forупотребляется для обозначения отрезков времени, выраженных в минутах, часах, днях, неделях и т. д. (for 3 hours – в течении 3 часов, for 5 years – в течении 5 лет).

Предлоги места: in – означает «в, внутри чего – либо» (in the water – в бутылке, in the sky – в небе), P. S. in the street – на улице, in the mirror – в зеркале, in the picture – на картине; onобозначает «на» (on the box – на коробке); atимеет значение «около, в, на, при, у, за» (at the bus stop – на остановке, at the Institute – в институте, at school – в школе, at the shop – в магазине, at the lesson – на уроке).

Предлоги положения в пространстве отображаются на схеме, которая представлена ниже.



Кроме того, ряд глаголов имеют свои собственные предлоги, которые в предложениях обычно не меняются.

To marry to – He married to her two years ago.

To depend on – It depends on what he will tell you.

To sentence to – He was sentenced to penal servitude.

To accuse of – He was accused of stealing this brooch.

To look at – Let’s look at this picture.
Упражнения

1. Вставьте предлоги, где необходимо. Переведите предложения.

1. When we go … foreign countries we see and learn a lot … things. 2. She says she likes to go … the Caucasus … winter. 3. Japan is a country … the western part … the Pacific Ocean. 4. The Crimea is …. the South … our country. 5. My sister lives … the Far East. 6. The Baltic Sea is … the West. 7. Show us the longest river … Russia … the map. 8. Slovakia is … the centre … Europe. 9. St. Petersburg is … the north – west … Moscow. 10. One … the students … our group is … Rumania.


2. Вставьте пропущенные предлоги. Переведите предложения.

1. Betty’s sister is married … Doctor Sandform. 2. Is Benny … home? –No, he is still … the park … his mother. 3. Look … the picture. 4. Put the notebook … the drawer. 5. He is not … the room. 6. Come … the room. 7. He has some friends … Moscow. 8. Take the newspaper … the table. 9. Children begin school … the age … seven. 10. Open your books … page 25.


3. Вставьте пропущенные предлоги. Переведите историю.

A Life for a Life

The English author, Richard Savage, was once living … London … great poverty. In order to earn little money he had written the story … his life, but not many copies … the book had been sold … the shops, and Savage was living from hand to mouth. As a result … his lack … food he became very ill, but after a time, owing to the skill … the doctor who had looked … him, he got well again. After a week or two the doctor sent a bill … Savage … his visits, but poor Savage hadn’t any money and couldn’t pay it. The doctor waited … another month and sent the bill again. But still no money came. After several weeks he sent it … him again asking … his money. In the end he came … Savage’s house and ask him … payment, saying … savage, “You know you own your life … me and I expected some gratitude … you.”

“I agree,” said Savage, “that I own my life … you, and to prove … you that I am not ungrateful … your work I will give my life … you.” With these words he handed … him two volumes entitled, The Life … Richard Savage.


9. The Infinitive

Инфинитив или неопределенная форма является неличной формой английского глагола. Формальным признаком инфинитива является частица to, которая не имеет самостоятельного значения. Инфинитив имеет следующие формы:







Active

Passive

Indefinite

To do

To be done

Continuous

To be doing

-

Perfect

To have done

To have been done

Perfect Continuous

To have been doing

-


The Indefinite Infinitive and the Continuous Infinitive обозначают действие, происходящее одновременно с действием, выраженным глаголом в личной форме (I am glad to take part in this conference.), the Continuous Infinitive подчеркивает действие, которое находится в развитии (He pretended to be sleeping.). The Perfect Infinitive обозначает действие, которое предшествует действию, выраженному глаголом в личной форме (I am glad to have taken part in this conference.). The Perfect Continuous Infinitive употребляется для выражения длительного действия, которое совершалось в определенный промежуток времени и предшествовало действию, выраженному глаголом в личной форме (He is known to have been working on this problem for many years.).
Упражнения

1. Переведите предложения и определите форму инфинитива.

I can’t hear a word though he seems to be speaking. I am happy not to have failed the exam. He was very sorry to have missed so many lessons before the exam. One of the boys was hurt and had to be operated on. He is glad to have been met by all his friends. He must have gone there to continue his research work. To be recognized gave her great fun. He must have been staying here for a long time. He will take part in the competition to be held on May, 10. Mary was the only person to be trusted.


2. Вставьте частицу to, где необходимо.

Make him … speak a little bit louder. My daughter asked me … let her … go to the cinema. We can … present the results of our discussion only after the meeting. Sandy was made … do such a terrible thing. We had better … stop … have a rest. She said that she might … come in the evening. His jokes made her … laugh a lot. I will … do all I can … help you. Let me … show you some new works of our local painters. You look very tired, you had better … go home.


3. Найдите нужную форму инфинитива для каждого предложения.

1. He made … it all over again. 2. We expect … in two days. 3. I am sorry … you but I didn’t mean anything like that. 4. It is the first step … 5. He seemed … to my speech attentively. 6. They must … to the South. They wanted … their holiday in Sochi. 7. … everything is the only way to find the right decision. 8. Jella must … for you too long. 9. I am really upset … 10 Here are some ideas … .Инфинитив: a) to do b) to analyze c) to have been waiting d) to have been interrupted e) to be presented f) to have gone g) to spend h) to be back i) to have disappointed j) to be done k) to be listening


10. The Participle

Причастие – неличная форма глагола, которая называет действие как признак предмета или другого действия. Причастие, наряду со свойствами глагола, имеет свойства прилагательного или наречия. Существуют следующие формы причастия:







Active

Passive

Participle I

(Indefinite Participle)

painting

Being painted

Participle II

(Past Participle)

-

Painted

Perfect Participle

Having painted

having been painted



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