9. Official Literature is too weak to cope with genuine conflicts. It prefers its trusty weapons of political intrigue and old-comrade network.
10. A democratic society means a new way of life, newly-emerging democratic attitudes and new people who are receptive to new ideas, independent-minded and have no complexes.
1. Perestroika is a veritable revolution.
2. Although Laval said he would continue Barthon's policy, he actually made a sharp turnabout.
3. We shall have greater tolerance and be ready to carry out a respectful debate.
4. The authoritarian way of life suppresses human individuality and independence.
5. Let us remember the degree of intolerance which characterized literary debate in Russia in the 19th century.
6. Disputes about nagging social problems and artistic forms and styles are natural.
7. It is only to be regretted that a very serious idea of Russian revival is sometimes used by the hysterical and reckless who scare away those people who in their thoughts and actions seek the flowering of Russia.
8. The custodian who looked after the statue was horrified to discover one day that migrating birds had taken to resting on its head.
9. When the inaugural banquet heard the last toast, control of the driver's handle was taken by engineer H.O. Graftio who took the tram for a trip of two miles.
1. A point worth noting is that in many cases the new technology creates a big demand for hastily trained operators. They tend modern equipment but have only a hazy idea of its design or even of its basic principles.
2. The passengers got into the carriage, settled themselves in their seats and travelled to ... the past.
3. If all the rails were laid end to end, they would reach Moscow.
4. For decades political life was forced into an outrageously perverted harness; this could not but affect the creative process.
5. Many honest and upstanding people, who were considered inconvenient and uncontrollable, were removed from the scene.
6. Changes in society's cultural life have brought to the limelight the utter absurdity and moral inadequacy of what seemed to be a norm throughout decades.
7. By-by, Peter. Hope to see you again. Don't stay too long down there.
8. She popped the note into the fire and began to sing away more merrily than ever.
1. Would you please illustrate this thesis?
2. In response to cries for help Dr. Richter and his staff depth-probed the situation.
3. The US Navy's Light Attack Squadron was tasked with providing close air support to Navy units and ground forces.
4. The Senate concentrated on the question of whether "Safeguard" should be expanded.
5. We have witnessed many breakthroughs in natural sciences.
6. One after another three Western states have been pilloried within a short span of time because of human right violations.
7. Nearly half of the women described the housewife who drew up the list including instant coffee as lazy and a poor planner.
8. Tanks roared into the city.
9. The old jalopy clanked up the hill.
10. She followed a column of soldiers into the Winter Palace.
11. Vormegut's play, "Happy birthday, Wanda June", is a study of popular concepts of heroism.
1. Moldavia is a key supplier of essential oils.
2. Germany is a key exporter of optical instruments.
3. According to WHO statistics, heart diseases are # / killer.
4. The trade union movement will never forgive those who defy an overwhelming Labour Party conference decision.
5. Under the present administration there appears to be more interest in the Persian Gulf. But there is no evidence of an intention thus far to increase the US naval presence.
6. The White House is taking urgent steps to salvage the foreign aid program defeated in the Senate last Friday.
7. The government relies on this force in its market-oriented development policies.
8. Kurt Vormegut's next novel, "Slaughter House 5", was both a critical success and a runaway bestseller.
9. The culmination of 20 years of naval hydrofoil technology, Tukuncuri is one of the most advanced surface craft.
10. It was the period of the broad Western hemisphere and world pre-war united people's front struggle against fascism.
1. Now liberal critics have grown courageous enough tc deride it frequently.
2. These writers strive towards goals that lie outside of literature.
3. To be really cost effective, we must have a good footing in the international video market.
6. Whenever Official Literature monopolized this theme, the mass reader devoured new works with genuine enthusiasm.
1. Lack of culture is the result of the lack of skills. Small wonder many try to make up for these short-comings with vanity and arrogance.
2. We cannot put up with it, because all these intrigues are against reform.
3. It is not difficult to think of many other areas where video could be used.
4. Why is this social desease getting worse?
5. Oil prices will be pegged to current world rates.
6. We set out to curb the powers of the economic bureaucracy.
7. The ideas of economic reforms were not thrashed out until 1987, and the first practical steps were taken at the beginning of 1988.
8. Nefteexport, naturally, tried to sell it for as high a price as it could get, just like any other exporter.
1. Radical reductions in strategic offensive arms have led to new breakthroughs in talks on chemical weapons.
2. They all need an "enemy", and when the situation becomes dangerous, their anxiety to find such an enemy increases.
3. In a closed society the elite echelon of Official Writers often speculated on forbidden topics.
1. The stratification and decay of Official Literature actually has little relevance to the future of literature.
2. A man, who steered clear of the limelight, Stanislav Shatalin, a well-known Russian economist, applied a business-like approach to analysis of the most complex of situations.
3. It is convenient for an incompetent or lazy manager to claim the existence if all sorts of "conspirators".
4. Socialist Realism preferred future to the present.
1. We squander most of our hard-earned petrodollars or spend them on equipment that takes years to come into use. This is what we should be worried about, not the fact that we export oil.
2. It turned out the young audience didn 't need these poets, they simply hounded them off the stage with an ironic flood of applause.
1. Russia, for instance, was always either besieged by enemies, who tried to tear her apart, or herself conquered new territories, seeking access to seas and oceans from Moscow to the Baltic and Black seas, the Pacific and
the Arctic. It often nearly disintegrated as a result of internecine strife or social upheavals, but later pulled herself together.
2. Yury Bondarev likens the new forces in our literature to the Nazi troops who overran the Soviet Union in 1941.
1. This policy is fraught with continued dangerous destabilization of the international situation. One can hardly guarantee it will not have some irreparable consequences.
2. In order to begin the process of disarmament it is necessary to stop the arms race. Imagine a train rolling down the tracks at full speed. You cannot make it go in the opposite direction without bringing it to a stop first.
3. People are so different. While sitting in a cinema, we are often surprised at the unexpected reaction of the people around us.
4. Russia has had so many enemies to fight against.
5. A great many people perished in that grisly hunt for dissidents and many more became spiritually impoverished as a result of the constant hatred, spying on one another and struggle for power:
6. But no constructive dialogue is possible without real freedom and in the absence of glasnost, when the information the public gets is strictly measured. There can be no constructive dialogue without democratic -rules and democratic outlook.
1. There has been a mounting concern throughout the world over the future of mankind. Could you comment in this context on the following problem? The world seems to have come closer to the brink of a world—wide ecological crisis. What do you think of it?
2. How do you view the economic reform in the country? We can hardly continue to live in and develop the country the way we 've got used to. What do you think of it?
3. We often hear at home and from our Western partners that these views are overly idealistic, overestimating the maturity and potential of world public thinking.
1. Particularly hard hit are a majority of developing countries.
2. Military expenditures have been a heavy burden on the national economy, with the poor being the hardest hit.
3. The decision to back out of the ABM Treaty has caused a deep divide between the US and some of its allies.
4. The number of highly skilled workers is indeed growing, but factories also employ many people who were unable to obtain a sufficient general education or the needed modern production skills. These workers are the hardest hit by unemployment and the first to suffer from cuts in social programs.
5. First-time job seekers are the hardest hit.
6. The hardest hit is consumer-oriented production.
1. Unfortunately, even at this late date the United Nations General Assembly decisions have not been implemented. Moreover, new roadblocks have been set up impending their implementation.
2. The video libraries have also done little to get information about the owners of video machines. They do not stock tapes which people particularly want to see. Moreover, those they do have to offer contain only films and TV programs.
3. Such questions were never discussed. Moreover, they were not even thought about.
1. The overwhelming majority of states are seeking mutually acceptable decisions. This represents no small achievement for a policy which is aimed at promoting dialogue and resolving all disputes at the negotiating table.
2. Not unlike Hans Christian Anderson's courtiers who refused to say that the emperor had no clothes on, the press has imposed a total black-out on the regime's political defeat.
1. The United Nations broad involvement in the developments all over the world is the raison d'etre of this international forum.
2. The whole raison d'etre of video is to meet consumer demand with supply.
1. Economic growth of the developing countries has been severely impeded, if not paralyzed, due to such factors as the deteriorating conditions of exchange in the world markets, a vast foreign debt and restrictions imposed on credits.
2. Any terrorist actions can, if anything, aggravate world tensions.
3. The stratification and decay of Official Literature actually has little relevance for the future of literature, because there are few talented writers in this camp, if any.
1. We shall all have to embark upon an untroddenedpath.
2. The rain is rustling the palm leaves, and its drops make road surfaces look like boiling water.
3. The mass reader devoured these works with genuine enthusiasm. He found satisfaction in partaking in forbidden and "hot" issues, even though he ended up with a muddled head for his labours.
4. We must conduct a real battlefield reconnaissance, the sociological approach is too weak.
5. Only by trial and error can we find out what the individual video market wants.
6. A majority of the programs we offer lie on the shelves collecting dust.
1. Unlike cinema, the video business is starting from scratch.
8. In the long run, someone will have to be held responsible for all this. They are aware of it and are trying to ward off the arrows of public anger by pointing an accusing finger in various directions.
1. New settlements are not threatening anybody, and never will.
2. The foreign policy of Russia in Asia is a policy of peace, and has always been.
1. We say that perestroika has brought us freedom. The same applies to glasnost.
2. Is this division akin to the last century's polemics between the Slavophiles and the Westerners?
3. Slavophiles were keen on Russian Slavic uniqueness, but they did not provoke pogroms or searches for the enemy to protect it.
4. For a long time the leaders of the party and its bureaucratic apparatus aroused in intellectuals the feeling of confrontation.
5. Liberal Prose, the child of the Khrushchev Thaw, was an honest movement.
6. The City Duma wanted a tramway but could not get permission to lay rails along the streets as this was in the power of the horse tram owners to grant and they of course did not want anything to do with the "electrical competitor".
1. Nechaev was more than an advocate of terror, he was synonymous with conspiratorial politics, entailing secret plans for the overthrow and merciless extermination of hated authorities and governments. In the terminology of the time, such tactics were called Blanquist, after Louis Auguste Blanqui, a radical activist in France during the 1830s and 1840s.
2. The voluntary public order squads known as the "druzhini" made their appearance in the 60s to assist the regular police in the work of crime prevention, as well as the more commonplace function of street patrolling.
3. It is sacrilege even to suppose that Slavophilism, a philosophy of love for Slavs and their culture, can be a political base for anti-Semitism.
4. Slavophiles idealized life in Russia before Tsar Peter the Great, but not the "oprichnina", special administrative elite under Tsar Ivan the Terrible.
5. "A poet in Russia is more than just a poet", Yevtushenko, a liberal Soviet poet, once remarked, hoping to extol the poet's role here.
6. In its essence this literature passionately strove towards goals that were outside of literature. Its most infamous task was the construction of a "New Man".
7. This is a sign of moral degradation reviving the spirit of "special conferences", sham trials during the Stalin years.
8. The elite echelon of Official Writers referred to as literary "nomenclature", often speculated on forbidden or semiforbidden themes.
1. He attends a technical secondary school specializing in electronic maintenance work.
2. Having shed all censorship restrictions under the aegis of Western publishers the significant majority of dissident writers suffocated from too much oxygen.
3. Part of our intellectuals realized back in the years of the Proletarian Culture Drive that by flocking together and using their private connections it was possible to manipulate the Party's position.
4. Ideological pressure continued at university and vocational school, in the army and at work.
5. Some try to drive a wedge between the authorities and the people.
6. Moreover, for the lazy and the weak-willed freedom is a way to social degradation and crime.
7. What is the cause of the present divisions among our intellectuals, especially writers?
8. True, not all artistic intellectuals or scientists participate in this fighting. Упражнение 56
1. At first the local government officials gave the green light to cooperatives that sought to make profit by dishonest means. Such co-operatives had more money and were more compliant.
2. As soon as things became a little more difficult for the black market dealers, corrupt officials and the shadow economics and politics, there appeared all sorts of social provocations.
3. The wave of reaction that is now trying to clear the way for a right-ward shift will ebb away in the end. It will end up in farce.
4. Official Literature maintained the Stalinist tradition and operated according to the principles of "Party Spirit" established in the 1930s and the 1940s.
5. Certain local leaders objected to the idea of having uncontrolled private cinema. They introduced compulsory permits and demanded that all tapes be vetted.
6. A normal democratic process means competitive spirit, including the intellectual sphere, but it does not need a vanity fair or a literary version of Vishinsky, the main public prosecutor during the Stalin purges of the 1930s.
7. The quasi-intellectual birds-of-a-feather spirit does exist.
1. Moreover, this new literature also draws strength from its ability to adapt to the conditions of free self-expression and rejects opportunistic political journalism.
2. It is only to be regretted that a very serious idea of Russian revival is sometimes used by the hysterical and reckless, who scare away those people who seek the flowering of Russia.
3. The kids of those days had their own "privilege" — they could hang on outside.
4. Any peasant knows that in a vast country like ours, with its bad roads, grain and potatoes should be stored by those who produce them.
5. Naturally, video cannot completely even out the differences between the centre and the periphery, but it can help.
6. Usually, if television is going to screen a theatre production, they don't do it until public interest has cooled off, on the principle that it would stop people going to see it live.
7. Socialist Realism taught the reader to view reality in the process of revolutionary transformation. It preferred the future to the present, oriented 182
itself towards overcoming the hardships of everyday life and was full of grand promises.
1. Nonetheless, Official Prose tried to draw Village Writers into its ideological ranks and coerce them into joining in the fight with the West.
2. I remember that dramatic moment when poet after poet stepped up to the "first" open microphone in a Moscow literary club to recite their beloved liberal poems -written in great secret during the Brezhnev era.
3. There are also great video opportunities for people living in far flung corners of the country who want to catch up with cultural events in town.
4. I would like to believe that video is the last socio-cultural innovation of our time to catch us unprepared.
5. My heart starts bleeding at the sight of petty intrigues in our literary corridors: writers trying to bite and outbark each other in order to get into the limelight.
6. Search for the "enemy" is all the more horrible when it is of ethnic origin, -when people are harassed because of their genealogical roots and those who do this find sadistic pleasure trying to establish the original names of the mothers and fathers of their victims.
7. Censorship was a formative influence for this Liberal school. It fed an addiction among Liberal Writers to an obtrusive reliance on allusions. Similarly, readers grew addicted to a "treasure-hunt" for hints, to seeking out places where the writer had his tongue in cheek. The result was that writers got carried away with all this tongue-in-the-cheek parody and forgot how to think.
1. Taboo subjects included: Stalin, the determinants of the Russian national character, the collectivization of agriculture and the dissident movement.
2. The grief brought by this torture could hardly serve to cement the Tower of Babel of Soviet belles lettres.
3. Some managed to adapt well, others sold out (neither the former, nor the latter were saved from the Russian roulette ofStalinist terror).
4. They must make sure that their employees have the incentive to do their job properly and to keep a finger on the pulse of future trends.
5. The Village Writers appear to reject "Soviet" values but their apocalyptic tone drowns out everything else, exhausting the reader with its total lack of taste.
6. As the director of Video Film, Oleg Uralov explains: "That is how it should be. Let's say when "Heart of a Dog" (by Bulgakov) was premiered in Moscow, with all the media attention it got, we managed to film the fifth or sixth performance".
7. A catalogue of new films could better indicate, the number of films to be issued, just like publishing houses do, with the difference that it will cost Video Film far more dearly to get it wrong than it will any publisher.
8. When the tram was crowded the conductor could flip up his seat to carry on with his work standing up to make more room.
1. The central figure of this literature is the Pious Woman who despite all the hardships of Soviet life remains true to her religious instincts. She is to be found, for example, in Solzhenitsyn's short story "Matryona's House", one of the earliest works of Village Prose.
2. Others prefer a faster version of self-justification. They argue that they took part in the persecution of dissident writers on "orders" from above.
3. Village Prose arose in the post-Stalinist years. It described the horrific conditions in the Russian countryside after it had been subjected to ruthless collectivization and the miseries of WWIIand the post-war period.
4. If you don't have cassettes with films that are difficult to understand or commentaries by qualified experts, you will not be able to help serious viewers.
5. Village Prose is not so much a thematic school, but a way of viewing the world.
6. It was Igor Skvortsov who five years ago brought the old Bresh tram out of its place of retirement in the tram park and all this time had been driving it along a tourist route.
7. In order to survive, the video libraries and videotheques must listen carefully to what the customers want.
8. It is easier to have ordinary films on video cassette rather than sending them round the country in the traditional heavy round metal containers.
1. For personal honours and benefits they readily harassed some of their own who dared to have different views.
2. Yet even to me, it is something alien: that is the demand that writers be socially committed grew so great that it all too often distracted Russian literature from aesthetic concerns and drew it into the realm of sermonizing.
3. At last remote places (and, as a popular song goes, this is a vast land) will not have to wait two years or more for new films to arrive on their screens.
4. This brand of Official Literature is referred to here as "secretarial". Only influential secretaries of the Writers' Union could produce it, since they occupied positions secure from both critics and censorship.
5. Many honest and upstanding people were harassed.
6. He would rent out a style for each particular job as one rents a car. it was nothing more than a vehicle to reach his social destination.
7. Official Literature could well take as its theme the Shakespearean tragedy occurring among the older generation. Some people in their 70s had suddenly grasped the futility of their earthly existence. Enlightenment had come too late. They had -wasted their lives in worshipping false ideals, while scoffing at any metaphysical values.