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Бреус Е. В. Основы теории и практики перевода с русского языка на английский: Учебное пособие. 2-е изд., испр и доп

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5. The situation in Cyprus has deteriorated because of the latest developments in the Cyprus-Turkey relations.

6. The non-proliferation regime is based on the UN Non-Proliferation Treaty concluded in the 70s.

7. Democracy in the post-Soviet environment is expanding through the growing authority of elected government bodies.

8. It is no accident that today Village Prose is in decay.

9. Officially Eden went to Moscow to exchange views.

10. The dispute between Slavophiles and pro-Westerners emerged- because of the very position of Russia.

Упражнение 18

1. Between last January and April the country lost 9,5 mln man-days due to ethnic clashes and strikes.

2. Their contribution is great and those who underestimated it make a bad mistake.

3. He shows concern for high ideals only when it concerns himself.

4. France has always been concerned about her relations with Germany.

5. From the very first days the Nazi rulers were out to build up Germany armed forces and speedily equip it with offensive weapons, above all aircraft and tanks.


6. The current session of the UN General Assembly has come out in favour of a peaceful settlement in the Middle East.

7. The government introduced elements of a market economy without accompanying them with adequate mechanisms for state regulation.

8. Our science, literature and arts are overloaded with social and political problems.

9. Contacts are being expended.

10. If such documents were ever to be published they would be a bombshell.

11. Ministries were strengthened and this led to the emergence of even bigger monopolies that could be supported only by upping prices.

Упражнение 19

1. Increased taxes, soaring prices, reduced production and delayed wages considerably lowered people's living standards in the former Soviet Union.

2. Continued laser weapon tests run counter to the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks agreements.

3. Growing ecological movement is a sign of the time.

4. The shrinking of work force in the "old" industries indirectly increases the overall number of skilled workers in the econonry as a whole.

5. Democracy in the former Soviet Union is expanding through the growing authority of elected government bodies.

Упражнение 20

1. Negotiations on these issues are not only desirable but absolutely necessary.

2. A peace treaty between the warring sides will help relax tensions in the Middle East.

3. Nuclear tests on Christmas Island would have greatly affected New Zealand.

4. A federation of Arab states is aimed at consolidating Pan-Arab unity.

5. It is not only a matter of workers' skills and other production know-how. New technology substantially changes the whole system of work organization at the plant.

6. National security became a key issue in French domestic policies.

7. Excursions to plants and farms will add up to the student's know-how.

8. A well thought out program for video business would serve as a lesson to other cultural spheres of activity.

9. These decisions would help promote the country's political and economic independence.


Упражнение 21

1. This points to the necessity of keeping production growing and bringing down unemployment.

2. There are other factors that stand in the way of good relations between the two countries.

3. We must do all we can to remove these shortcomings.

4. What the United Nations has done to aid developing countries has been instrumental in fostering their economy.

5. Miners are demanding higher wages, shorter working hours and better homing.

6. The committee demanded wider jurisdiction.

1. In the 19th century higher production in the leading European countries was fostered by their economic expansion.

8. All participants in the conference stressed the need for T. U. unity.

9. Since Italy was openly preparing to attack Ethiopia in 1935, US foreign policy became an issue in the debate between Democrats and Republicans.

10. It is necessary to rekindle the feeling of dignity and compassion in the nation, rather than inflate suspicion.

11. Village prose created portraits, sometimes brilliant ones, of village eccentrics, and it contributed to the revival of national self-consciousness.

12. Traditionally in Russia, as in other countries with a large farm population, Village Literature is infected with a messianic spirit. This disease is a strange combination of a national superiority complex, bred on ethnic and religious exclusiveness, and an inferiority complex.

13. In 1933, two years before she died, she suddenly revealed her findings to Stalin, and said she wanted to publish them.

14. This is why critics are still rather suspicious of irony. They believe it violates the serious view of literature as a social enlightener.

Упражнение 22

1. If we are to solve global problems, countries and socio-political movements, whatever their ideological or other differences, must bring to their interaction a new scope and quality.

2. It is clear that no country can achieve omnipotence, no matter how much it builds up its military might.

3. Moreover, if it relies exclusively on that might, it will in the final analysis undermine other aspects of its own security.

4. At first sight this seemed an economic victory. But it further deepened the crisis.

5. We clearly see that the freedom of choice principle is a must.


6. Italy's military and economic potential was relatively weak for, among other things, she did not have any important minerals and strategic raw materials. Consequently, she could not risk a military confrontation with any of the big powers.

7. Authoritarian role is seen as salvation when people are poor and the state is poor.

8. Since both had the same view of post-war Europe, former wine merchant Ribbentrop hit it off well with the Marquis of Londonderry.

9. As the many-sided nature of the world asserts itself, it undermines high-handed attempts to teach others true democracy.

10. World climate will continue to improve, with more and more countries in Europe benefiting from increased cooperation in many fields.

Упражнение 23

1. Many factors make it ever more essential to stimulate economic cooperation between our two countries. Modern production level, for one. Also, the grand scale of production, the revolution of science and technology and the growing international specialization and division of labour.

2. What remains to be seen is whether these countries will follow the old technological patterns in their economic development or be able to join those who search after ecologically clean production.

3. There are many problems independent unions are faced with today. They have to discern the main development trends in the consciousness of the working people, learn how to guide these trends into the most effective channels and come forward at the right time with appropriate watchwords.

4. It is not only this that makes our task novel and difficult.

5. The quasi-intellectual birds-of-a-feather spirit does exist. What is more it has been acquiring increasingly ugly forms.

6. Nechayev was more than an advocate of terror, he was synonymous with conspirational politics entailing secret plans of the overthrow and merciless extermination of hated authorities and governments. In the terminology of the time, such tactics were called Blanquist, after Louis Auguste Blanqui, a radical activist of France during the 1830s and 1840s.

7. A new world armed conflict was rapidly brewing. The seats of war in Europe and the Far East were close to its borders. All this created a real threat to the country.

8. Video Film provides more favourable conditions and puts a justified emphasis on videos for group audiences. This, however, does not mean that videos for the individual viewers are to be relegated to second place.

9. Anti-war and anti-Nazi movements gained momentum, as Japan seized Manchuria, Spanish war broke out and Nazis came to power in Germany.


10. The United States wielded great military and industrial power and had considerable influence. This gave it an ample possibility for sounding a stem warning to curb the aggressors.

Упражнение 24

1. It is only natural people do not see eye to eye on nagging social problems and artistic forms and styles.

2. One proof of this is the role that unions play in rectifying, improving, regulating and stipulating the housing and working conditions through labour contracts and strikes.

3. Meanwhile, normal, honest, hard working people have to fight with countless problems and difficulties and live under the burden of red tape, indifference and soaring crime. They must have some explanation or a semblance of explanation.

4. We shall face extremely difficult problems in the nearest future. The prospect gives rise to a wide range of opinions.

5. The Italian government was unable to pursue an active policy in Central Europe because of its intervention in Spain. As a result, it increasingly needed Germany's economic and political support.

6. Hitler treated the Italians with contempt and gave them a low rating as military allies. Just the same, he decided to use Italy's manpower and material resources for his own plans.

7. After Hitler had his hands on the resources of almost the entire continent, he would easily deal with Britain too.

8. When Lord Halifax's car pulled up at the entrance to Hitler's villa in Berchtesgaden, the Fuehrer came down the steps to meet him. Halifax mistook him for the lackey who was to help him out of the car. But their meeting was in no way marred by that unfortunate slip.

9. The Polish government backed this initiative and it responded by proposing a collective pact.

10. Some sectors have achieved certain improvements, but the economic situation as a whole is very complicated.

11. In the long run someone will have to be responsible for all this. They are aware of it and are trying to ward off the arrows of public anger by pointing an accusing finger in various directions.

Упражнение 25

1. Nations and public at large ardently wish to see improvements. They want to learn to co-operate.

2. Democracy is not only a means. // is an end in itself of paramount importance.


3. We have come here to share our ideas and -we want this most authoritative world organization to be the first to know about our new and important decisions.

4. A market-oriented economy is the pivot of this program, and for a good reason. The market provides a thorough restructuring of the obtaining economic system. It allows us to make essential changes in production relations and, in the final analysis, to give our economy a new quality.

5. People want to know the truth about each other to be aware that they are part q/'the great human family of nations, languages and cultures.

6. We are becoming ever more outspoken in analyzing the profound factors that slow down reforms, and, naturally, we want to find out whether the designers acted in good faith.

7. Only then we shall feel the results of our efforts and satisfaction in our hearts, and both our life and ourselves will change.

8. Freedom may be a scourge, it can destabilize a person's inner world.

9. Slavophiles were decent people and real patriots, who sought a special way for Russia. They thought the West posed a threat to such a way, although objectively they were largely influenced by the West.

10. This agitates people and makes them nervous. They face a choice: either try to understand these phenomena or reject thtfm.

11. Yuri Petrov started his career as head of the plant's leading department, he was in charge of the logistical support for its reform. Since then, whatever turn his career might have taken, he had always kept a vigilant eye on this sphere.

12. The authoritarian way of life suppresses human activity and independence. It has thousands of ways for doing it. The suppression begins at kindergarten and school.

Упражнение 26

1. "As far as I am concerned, accounting is a purely economic concept based solely on systems that produce goods and provide services", — he explains.

2. But then, there is no getting away from the necessity to balance their interests on the international level. It is vital for our survival and progress.

3. It is obvious that attempts to streamline creative quest by fiat are destructive socially and morally. This is all the more so if such attempts are made by far from impeccable people.

4. The central figure of this literature is the Pious Woman who despite all the hardships of life remains true to her religious instincts. She is to be found, for example, in Solzhenitsin's short story "Matryona's Home", one of the earliest works of Village Prose.


11 3ac. 101

5. The number of women in the economically active population has grown in real and absolute terms. The process, known as feminization of wage labour, deserves special attention.

6. At Mussolini's personal instruction Ciano handed the Germans a copy of a secret file from the British Foreign Office entitled "The German Threat". It had been smuggled out of London by Italian intelligence agents.

Упражнение 27

1. As we elaborated our proposals for the transition to a market economy, we thoroughly analyzed the national economic situation.

2. The authorities should intervene only when the law is broken and support businesses if they are interested in seeing them grow.

3. Search for the "enemy" is a social disease. It is especially dangerous at the present period, when we badly need national accord.

4. The country had been preparing for this initial step ever since it started reforms.

5. But if we yield to the exigencies of objective conditions and deliberate pressure and place curbs on democracy, we shall overlook and fail to understand the main, fundamental processes and causes.

6. When our living standards improve and the level of our culture and democracy increases, the authoritarian features of our national and individual psychology will become obliterated.

7. On the whole, we need everything useful and acceptable that we can borrow from abroad, but we also need many non-traditional and novel patterns, if we are to achieve success in everything.

8. Today's realities make any genuine progress impossible if it disregards human and national rights and freedoms, or is detrimental to the environment.

9. The rest postponed the signing for various reasons, chiefly because they did not have appropriate instructions from their governments.

10. Different people mingle in those corridors, and they are angry for different reasons, some — because they were born angry, others — because they lost the privileges they used to have, and still others — because they either have the inferiority complex or, on the contrary, think of themselves as men of genius.

11. There are several reasons, I guess. One of them is that for centuries the peoples inhabiting this country lived under an authoritarian state.

12. Countries cannot achieve their national goals unless they take into account what has been done by others and put to use the possibilities of equal co-operation.

13. Reform needs a smart and inspired opponent. But only on one condition: there should be no hatred which may lead to violence.


Упражнение 28

1. Our nations entered a phase of great opportunities, which are therefor the taking if only the leaders of both countries are politically astute enough to seize them.

2. This is one of the things that is holding the reforms back.

3. When asked to assess the reasons for the country's economic plight and how to escape from it, Shatalin sticks only to the facts.

4. It seems it is necessary for states to reconsider their attitude toward such a unique instrument as the United Nations, without which world politics is inconceivable.

5. The point at issue is not a conflict between pro-Westerners and Slavophiles, but a continuation of numerous outrageous distortions and abnormalities — historic, economic and political — which have accumulated and which have enhanced one another over many decades.

6. Also, economic discipline is on the decline especially where state orders and contracts are concerned.

7. Shatalin proposes that, as a matter of priority, remuneration be brought in line with the result of one's labour.

8. The article says that military co-operation also covers space and missiles.

9. We are becoming ever more outspoken in analyzing the profound factors that slow down reforms.

Упражнение 29

1. We are now at crossroads. We may either return to the old way, which leads into an impasse or resolutely overcome the vestiges of the authoritarian past, which stifle our initiative and cripple our souls.

2. Many honest and upstanding people, who were considered inconvenient and uncontrollable, were removed from the scene, harassed and, more recently, placed in conditions which did not allow them to work normally. They were labelled dissidents.

3. Nevertheless, many got used to this and liked it the way it was. For personal honors and benefits they readily harassed some of their own who dared to have different views.

4. "The job of local authorities is to provide their people with things that are otherwise unavailable in the area, or create the necessary conditions for independent business operations that will do it for them", Shatalin sums up.

5. At first the local government officials gave the green light to cooperatives that sought to make quick profit by dishonest means. Such cooperatives had more money and were more "compliant".



6. It is much later that historians of art and literature exalt them by discarding all no substance and ambitious and leaving only what really matters and has any artistic value.

7. The wave of reaction that is now trying to clear the way for a right-ward shift will ebb away. It will end in farce.

8. We are becoming ever more outspoken in analyzing the profound factors that slow down reforms and, naturally, we want to find out whether the designers acted in good faith.

9. Paradoxically as it might seem, this happens because they are very sincere and trusting people.

10. The real test for what we build will be when it comes face to face with foreign products and finds itself in competition with unofficial hire network which passes the films on from hand to hand.

11. The people of both nations have awakened to the inevitability of what will happen if they do not make changes.

Упражнение 30

1. The old tram pulled away from the stop on Admiralty Avenue.

2. The tram started running as far as Strelna.

3. It was he who five years ago brought the old Bresh tram out of its place of retirement in the tram park and drove it along a tourist route.

4. The dense foliage of the bushes growing in the deep crevices at the cliffs showered a silvery rain upon us at the slightest breath of the wind.

5. The battle of Moscow greatly influenced the course of war, exploding the myth of Nazi invincibility and paving the way to final victory.

6. It was the night of December 5 that the Soviet troops launched a major counter-offensive.

7. They commissioned the biggest power station in the world.

8. Each year 110,000 to 115,000 new Moscow families move into newly-built apartments.

9. However to talk about Soviet literature as a single entity somehow uniting all these various literatures is to indulge in an illusion.

10. In the last years of its life, having recovered from the Stalinist shock, Soviet literature existed in three main currents. Those three trends were "Official", "Village" and "Liberal Prose".

11. Official Literature operated according to the principles of "party spirit" established in the 1930s and 1940s.

12. Official Literature is becoming an intransigent opponent of change.

13. However Official Literature was too weak to cope with genuine conflicts.

14. Village Writers bristle with л pathological hatred of rock'n roll.


Упражнение 31

1. Old birds are not to be caught with chaff.

2. Give me a little -water, if you please, and let us be friends.

3. Would you like to take anything*?

4. Finally the mazurka started.

5. We are now at crossroads.

6. Some sectors have achieved certain improvements, but the situation on the whole is very complicated.

7. But life goes on. There is no stopping it.

8. I wouldn't show myself to the princess for anything until my new uniform is ready.

9. CDU MP Leisler Kiep says that "hard times" are in store for the opposition when it will have to take a clear-cut stand in the parliamentary debate on treaties with Russia.

10. Obstacles in the way of democracy are disappearing slowly. The greatest hindrances are in the depth of culture and conscience.

11. The secretary's answer to the great proletarian writer and in such a

context was delayed. It could only mean one thing: that he should not write a

biography. Gorky promptly dropped the idea. ,

12. On the eve of the 80th anniversary of the Petersburg Tramway I went to see the man responsible for this "time machine".

Упражнение 32

1. At ten o'clock in the evening the police come through the city center putting out the lamps.

2. I suppose you are going to Stavropol? Yes, Sir, I am ... with some government baggage.

3. Now this is all crumbling to ruins.

4. All taxes should go to local budgets from which a certain proportion should be forwarded to central funds.

5. The first line to be opened was not very long, just a little over a mile and a half.

6. Statues of this man in granite and bronze towered over the immense country.

7. It is obvious that attempts to streamline creative quest by fiat are destructive socially and morally.

8. It is convenient for a money-loosing factory to blame suppliers for its ownfault.

9. How could those helmets come into the life of the Republic of Vietnam? It must have been the French who did it.


10. Any peasant knows that in a vast country like ours with our bad roads grain and potatoes should be stored by the producer.

Упражнение 33

1. Many writers in Russia, especially Dostoyevsky, Tolstoy, Gogol and Chekhov identified this in man and despised him accordingly.

2. A century and a half later, when the husk had been finally separated from the grain, the true giants of literature, thought, harmony and art live on in the memory of people.

3. How dangerous is this disease (need to have the enemy image) for the future of reform"?

4. When the inaugural banquet heard the last toast, control of the driver's handle was taken by engineer Heinrich Osipovich Graftio took the tram for a trip of about two miles.

5. In all these discussions on whatever side they may be conducted, I most emphatically reject attacks on the dignity of the opponent.

6. Yet he has no ready-made solutions to stop shady dealers from buying up all the shares in л free market.

7. But this is not what you have in mind. I think you mean the deplorable situation in which people engaged in literary polemics begin to form warring factions, report on one another and abuse one another.

8. But the group infighting sometimes includes even honorable and really talented writers whose books advocate goodness and compassion.

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