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Бреус Е. В. Основы теории и практики перевода с русского языка на английский: Учебное пособие. 2-е изд., испр и доп




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КЛЮЧИ К УПРАЖНЕНИЯМ И ТЕКСТАМ Упражнение1

1. She was hurt.

2. Her voice was heavy with tears.

3. They were at a banquet in honour of the team of which her son was a member.

4. He is a student at the 10th grade.

5. All the others were highly critical of the proposed agreement.

6. Don't be melodramatic, Helen. So I'm melodramatic, am I? Well, I'm not.

7. Today the world is a very different place from what it was at the beginning of this century and even at the middle of it.

8. He apologized saying that his watch was fast.

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9. Censorship was a formative influence for this liberal school.



10. The concept of development at others' expense is becoming obsolete.

11. This is humiliating for artistic intellectuals and their work.

12. Why is this social disease getting worse"?

13. Today we are witnessing the emergence of a new literature which is opposed to the old one chiefly by its readiness to communicate with any culture.

14. We hoped for dynamic and constructive work in the center and throughout the country. Our hopes were thwarted, you remember, I said I'd be blunt.

15. The stratification and decay of Official Literature actually has little relevance for the future of literature.

16. Socialist Realism taught the reader to view reality in the process of revolutionary transformation. It was full of grand promises and unlimited class hatred.

17. Yury Bondarev likens the new forces in our literature to the Nazi troops who overran the Soviet Union in 1941. On the lips of a former front-line soldier, Bondarev's comparison is a pretty sharp accusation.

Упражнение 2

1. Defeated many times, the drive for democracy and humanism has not disappeared.

2. These politicians find it especially difficult to leave behind the stereotypes and experience of the time.

3. To deny a nation the freedom of choice is to upset the unstable balance that has been achieved.

4. This does not mean that in a year or two we won't be able to significantly speed up economic development, remove social tensions and convince the people that we are heading in the right direction.

5. But the quasi-intellectual birds-of-a-feather spirit does exist, acquiring increasingly ugly forms and giving strength to reactionary forces and dark instincts.

6. A new economic system has to be urgently built, since the old one no longer works.

7. We are giving more rights to local government bodies.

8. Oil prices will be pegged to current world rates.

9. In this country and all over the world dictators fall.

10. Village and Liberal Prose, each in its own way, suffered from the disease of hypermoralism.

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11. The new literature also draws strength from its ability to adapt to the conditions of free self-expression.

12. It all too often distracted Russian literature from aesthetic concerns and drew it into the realm of sermonizing.

13. Socialist Realism preferred future to the present.

14. The wave of reaction that is now trying to clear the way for a right-ward shift will ebb away.

15. Real artists will do what they are supposed to do.

16. The question of how far a Brezhnev-era writer such as Georgy Markov believed in what he wrote was never asked; it seemed indecent.

17. This is humiliating for artistic intellectuals and their work; it turns the public against them, has a negative effect on the cultural climate in society and offends public morality.

18. For decades political life was forced into an outrageously perverted harness; this could not but affect the creative process.

Упражнение 3

1. The summit in Washington certainly threw light on changes in public opinion.

2. We have accepted the challenge within ,the limit of our jurisdiction.

3. Are they capable of tuning in to these moods and translating them into practical measures.

4. We have not yet been able to improve or stabilize the national economic situation and many negative processes are gaining momentum.

5. Plekhanov had seen through Lenin.

6. Currents of flaring rhetoric drowned what each of us should do right away to ensure for ourselves a better future.

7. The economy and politics go hand-in-hand.

8. For decades political life way forced into an outrageously perverted harness.

9. Perestroika stripped Official Literature of its ideological role and its inviolability.

10. Nonetheless, Official Prose tried to draw village writers into its ideological ranks and coerce them into joining in the fight with the West by showering them with state prizes and medals.

11. Yury Bondarev likens the new forces in our literature to the Nazi troops who overran the Soviet Union in 1941.

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Упражнение 4



.1. Passengers used to hang off them in clusters right up until the 1960s, when the last trams of this design finally disappeared from the streets of Petersburg.

2. The passengers got into the car, settled themselves in their seats and travelled to ... the past.

3. Nowadays it is recognized at the highest level that the two countries have turned their backs on confrontation and are prepared to leave it behind them.

4. When she had grabbed the manuscript, her only intent was to read the book.

5. We set out to curb the powers of the economic bureaucracy, but look what has happened.

6. Yury Bondarev likens the new forces in our literature to the Nazi troops who overran the Soviet Union in 1941.

7. Video cassettes of seminars could be sent out to local institutes of higher education.

8. The mass reader, starving for information, devoured these works with genuine enthusiasm.

9. Their decline has resulted in tangible changes in the literary-social hierarchy of values.

10. Village prose arose in the post-Stalinist years.

11. It is convenient for an incompetent or lazy manager to claim the existence of all sorts of "conspirators" and "intriguers".

12. Only the experts could tell the difference between this and the real Bresh trams brought from England in 1907.

13. But this does not mean that in a year or two we won't be able to significantly speed up economic development, remove social tensions and convince the people that we are heading in the right direction.

Упражнение 5

1. In recent years, every day saw nearly a planeful of our tourists flocking to-India.

2. The early post-war years witnessed a certain reappraisal of values.

3. Mid-1934 signaled the beginning of its decline.

4. We have witnessed many breakthroughs in natural sciences.

5. Recent years saw a rapid development of small businesses in cities and workers' settlements.

6. This period saw Lisitsky's early experiments in which he turned to folk art for inspiration.

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1

7. The past decade has brought about a number of investigations into the physical and chemical characteristics of these substances.



8. The Festival ends with a gala ballet performance at Petrodvorets, the famous palace of fountains outside Petersburg.

У п p а ж н е н и е 6

1. American Childhood is an anthology that draws upon the excerpted diaries and memoirs of both famous and unknown Americans.

2. The earlier processes needed a catalyst to achieve this end.

3. This chapter describes the use of organo-metallic compounds, while this table lists their properties.

4. The Bolshoi yesterday scored a great success with its first performance of a new ballet "The Stone Flower".

5. Oil has always been the subject of heated debate in Norway. There were forces in the country which resisted plans for farming out prospecting drilling to foreign capital.

6. Village Prose, much like ancient folklore, demarcates "us" and "them".

7. In foreign markets there is a great demand for jams, honey, canned vegetables and fruits, mushrooms and medicinal herbs, to mention but a few,

8. Our solar system does not seem to have such clots of antimatter.

9. This offers hope that Russia, a country traditionally rich in talent, will bring forth a new literature, one that will be no more and no less than literature.

10. Vietnam is not a large country. But within its boundaries there are high mountains, dense jungles and fertile plains.

11. The area of this biggest depression in the world accounts for three-quarters of the oil and gas extracted in the country.

12. Europe is growing increasingly concerned about the escalation of tensions in the Middle East.

13. Small wonder that the Kazakhstan Bogatur open-cast mine alone produces annually more than 50 mln. tons of coal.

14. The maximum elevation of land in Nicaragua is 31 meters. This offers the most advantageous geographical conditions for a canal.

15. The Solovki archipelago has over a hundred and seventy architectural, historical and archeological landmarks, and most of these are wretchedly dilapidated.

16. The Senate focused on the question of whether "Safeguard" should be expanded.

17. From Petersburg to Strelna along the famous iron road of Oranela we rumbled on the first of the new excursions. '

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Упражнение 7

1. Inflation has triggered off barter, the most primitive form of trade.

2. Higher pay for miners and other workers would raise the purchasing power of the people.

3. The split in the Democratic party elected Lincoln.

4. The fattening of pigs and cattle and poultry breeding produced a meet gain of 78,600 tons this year.

5. It's time we understood that this not only leads to hatred and dissociation in society but develops indifference, lack of principle and the absence of any convictions and moral standards.

6. This is the only way to achieve a change in the qualitative condition of society.

7. Matters relating to pension insurance are high on the agenda of pension commissions set up by union committees.

8. We were slow to realize \hz\film and television brought in their wake a yet another form of screen art.

Упражнение 8

1. Let us remember the degree of intolerance which characterized literary debates in Russia in the 19 century.

2. Russia needs unity and a new vision of her centuries-long unifying and consolidating strength.

3. Self-regulation, self-government and a high level of democracy are a must for the contemporary economy, science and creative quest.

4. He was easy game for the nazis who used him for their carefully planned provocation.

5. If the principles incorporated in this document are implemented, it will be appreciated in full measure by the coming generations as well.

6. Protocols on co-operation with the Lithuanian Society of Aeronauts were signed by representatives of the US and Czech Republic.

7. After World War П the Britons who had lost their former might were elbowed out of the way by their oversees partner.

8. Is it possible to change the situation? Certainly, we can change it. If we fail to do so we shall have a lot of trouble.

9. Some time on the eve of 1889, he got hold of the first volume of Capital.

10. Authoritarian rule is seen as salvation when people are poor and the state is poor.

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Упражнение 9



1. 77iis was the theme of the recent Plenum of the Writers' Union.

2. However, when co-operatives that sought to make profit by dishonest means provoked a public outcry, the authorities cracked down on all cooperatives, and the industrial ones were the first to go.

3. It is only to be regretted that a very serious idea of Russian revival is sometimes used by the hysterical and reckless.

4. Their actions are obviously based on subjective idealism and political snobbery.

5. This was one of the goals of perestroika.

6. I believe, an ans-wer to this natural and quite sincere question will be provided by life itself.

7. They neither look for personal gain nor strive for power. But they are in the grips of a pain.

8. Each group has its likes and dislikes, banners and slogans.

9. They are vital to science, the arts and literature.

Упражнение 10

1. One serious problem of Russian literature has always been hyper-moralism, a disease which exerts tremendous pressure on the reader.

2. Village prose began to expose and condemn rather than to extol. It had three "sworn enemies". Strangely enough the first enemy was woman.

3. The second enemy was youth and youth culture. Village Writers bristle with a pathological hatred of rock'n roll. They rejected aerobics with equal venom.

4. "They" include Jews and non-Russians.

5. The central figure of this literature is Pious Woman who despite all the hardships of Soviet life remains true to her religious instincts.

6. A secret memorandum pointed out that the Nazis were out to achieve world domination for the Reich.

7. The main clause of the Act was a mandatory embargo on the sale of arms to belligerent countries.

8. Realistically minded political figures could not but see that the only salvation for France lay in a firm alliance with Russia.

Упражнение 11

1. As soon as things became a little more difficult for the shadow economics and politics, there appeared a\\ sorts of social provocations.

2. Small wonder so many people write in their letters about "loss of faith" and "loss of ideals".

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3. During recent anniversary celebrations we missed our chance to reach a compromise. Not that we lack good examples in our own history: victorious Peter the Great set up a monument to Swedes fallen in the Battle of Poltava.

4. The situation will change in the direction of common sense. We shall acquire the habits of greater tolerance and the readiness to carry out a respectful debate.

5. If we imagine an ideal society, the best" way to run it is to use different systems and methods of governing in different sectors. It would need both democracy and administrative control.

6. Complex systems cannot be controlled with rigid formulas and rules. Every system needs a self-regulating mechanism.

7. The change is resisted by our psyche, whose possibilities, problems and difficulties are still a mystery to us.

8. All these facts prompt a simple answer: this country needs someone to rule it with a rule of iron.

9. Such sentiments have their logic, because there are people who deliberately organize sabotage and there are people who are responsible for mismanagement.

10. He had greater success with a second review-article called "On the so called question of markets".

11. To be sure there remains the path of repentance, but that road has been taken by only a handful of Official Writers, and hardly the most representative.

12. Today we are witnessing the emergence of another, "alternative", literature.

13. The consequences here will be even more serious if we allow our prejudices, sluggishness and fear of change to win the day.

14. There appeared one after another volumes of memoirs of former ministers, generals and ambassadors.

15. A column of thick smoke rose over the palace in the Quay d'Orsey: clerks were busy burning diplomatic archives.

16. Л would be a help if we had a system of advance booking.

17. A poet in such conditions is less than a poet, because he eventually degenerates.

18. The hardest hit are the first-time job seekers.

19. They all need an "enemy", and when the situation becomes dangerous, their anxiety to find such an enemy increases.

20. Otherwise the video hire business will not be able to realize its full potential.

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Упражнение 12



1. Excitement made the sergeant's voice almost unrecognizable.

2. His belligerent manners caused him to lose one friend after another.

3. Glasnost enabled writers to find freedom of expression in their published books.

4. Abstract Impressionism had already placed American artists at the forefront of international art.

5. The government report on the essence and basic premises of the economic improvement stressed the vital necessity of social consolidation for the effort of hand.

6. Lack of a spacious studio caused Lisitsky to engage primarily in graphic arts.

7. Yet economic independence for individual republics is viewed by Shatalin as a very dim prospect. He believes it is pie in the sky.

8. The sharp turn that now took place in Ulyanov's mind was not about the methods of struggle — terror or a mass movement. He still had no views on this issue.

9. Another priority job is to create a normal environment for small businesses, says Shatalin, and he states his belief that they are one of the main driving forces in the economy.

10. No doubt the foreign reader finds it amusing and exotic.

11. Sweden and Japan, the leaders in robotization, long had lower unemployment levels than other Western countries.

12. Sunrise found me alighting from the train at a small station called Yasenki, about four miles from Tolstoy's home.

13. A profound analysis past and present brings us to the conclusion that it is precisely these steps we must take in our joint quest for the supremacy of the idea central to all mankind over the multitude of centrifugal ideas.

Упражнение 13

1. Some of the recent public meetings too often see attempts to find a scapegoat rather than ways and methods of solving our common problems.

2. Again and again we returned to the same problems, and every time we saw new aspects to them and came up with new often mutually exclusive solutions.

3. Lenin was to meet him only once, nearly ten years later, when they were both on their way to exile in Siberia.

4. Usually, if television is going to screen a theater production, they don't do it until public interest has cooled off.

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123ак. 101



5. Video Film could offer a film-copying service by post, using the customer's own cassettes.

6. This is why our critics are still rather suspicious of irony. They believe it violates the serious view of literature as a social enlightener.

7. If you don't have cassettes with films that are difficult to understand or commentaries by qualified experts, you will not be able to help serious viewers.

8. Our country has been deprived of normal internal political process for much too long. But life goes on, no matter what. There is no stopping it, as there is no stopping thought.

9. Then, there is no getting away from the necessity to meet the interests of all the parties. Their balance is vital to survival and progress.

10. Nonetheless, Official Prose tried to draw Village Writers into its ideological ranks and coerce them into joining in the fight with the West.

11. The government in Berlin believed that Britain and France's treaties with Czechoslovakia and Poland would stand in the way of these initiatives.

12. Developed countries see video as one of the main avenues of information and the growing interest abroad in our country makes it all the more important.

13. Life prompts us to take a new look at some theoretical ideas and concepts.

14. No amount of cover-up, rationalizing, alibiing or ducking will avoid the inevitable day of reckoning.

15. Russian history has always had a lot of it.

16. Their views can be judged differently — politically, ideologically, practically, but they cannot be accused of advocating anything immoral.

Упражнение 14

An important feature of today's working class is that it is unevenly distributed by industries. Extracting and some manufacturing industries are rapidly losing manpower.

The work force is shrinking fastest in the so-called old industries: food processing, textiles, clothing, shoe-making, and coal mining. There are two major factors for this process: rising labor productivity and growing competition from developing countries. International corporations are transferring to these countries their plants to take advantage of the cheaper labour costs.

As a rule, the workers in the "old" industries are the ones with low levels of skills and general education. The shrinking work force there indirectly increases the overall number of skilled workers in the economy as a whole.

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Simultaneously, there is an increasing demand for more highly-skilled manpower in radioelectronics, instrument-making, petrochemicals, aerospace and other new growing industries. As they set up new plants in these industries, the giant corporations strive to prevent unionization there. This enlarges what the western press calls "a union-free environment".



A key to understanding the qualitative changes in the working class today is an analysis of the impact produced by the ongoing scientific and technological revolution. It calls for higher skill levels in each new generation of workers, and at times it completely alters the nature of work.

For instance, automation requires a large number of white-collar workers: engineers, programmers and computer operators. Computer-aided machinery needs highly-skilled job-setters to tend it.

Упражнение 15

1. Because of this / am obliged to address not only you, members of the Duma, but all Russian citizens.

2. Since the future is an element of the present in the shape of a plan, Russian society has always put speculative intellectual effort above the immediate and pressing needs of the present.

3. In the future market will take over as regulatdr .

4. France made a turnabout in her foreign policy which brought her much closer to Russia.

5. They continue to see their saviour in the foggy monarchist-religious dream of a theocratic order.

6. Every Russian and American in our generation now has the opportunity to learn about each other's lives and opinions.

7. Countries cannot achieve their national goals unless they take into account what has been done by others.

8. It's time to shake off this naive idea that without spending any extra cash on conversion we can flood the market with lots of consumer goods.

9. Whenever Official Writers monopolized these themes in the censored press, the mass reader devoured these new works with genuine enthusiasm.

Упражнение 16

1. The degradation of Village Prose has greater significance for literature, as it involves more gifted and socially important writers.

2. In time, however, things began to change. The shift began even before Perestroika, but its arrival made it more profound.

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12'

3. The pro-Western turn in the development of Soviet society brought about a clash between the village writers and society.

4. Lenin's work on his first major book, the Development of Capitalism in Russia, began to make more rapid progress.

5. The stratification and decay of official literature actually has little relevance to the future of literature.

6. The existence of official literature in the nationalistic camp appears rather ludicrous; after all it once sang the glories of internationalism.

7. The course of events called for immediate joint steps by peace loving states.

Упражнение 17

1. Siberia's iron and steel industry is expanding from West to East.

2. Today the burden of unemployment, inflation and delayed wages fall on the shoulders of EMTs too. Moreover, as statistics show, the position of the white-collar workers is deteriorating faster and faster.

3. At the same time we have a growing number of highly-skilled specialists. Without them today's economy would simply be incapable of developing.

4. Our union is constantly working towards overcoming the split in the national movement of coal miners' unions and strengthening its unity.


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