I'll never forget Easter of 1946. I was 14, my little sister Ocy was 12, and my elder sister Darlene was 16. We lived at home with our mother; our dad had died five years before, leaving Mom with three school kids to raise and no money.
A month before Easter the pastor of our church asked everyone to save money and help a poor family.
When we got home, we talked about what we could do. We decided to buy 50 pounds of potatoes and live on them for a month. When we thought that if we kept our electric lights turned out as much as possible and didn't listen to the radio, we'd save money on that month's electric bill. Darlene got as many house and yard cleaning jobs as possible, and both of us babysat for everyone we could.
Every day we counted the money to see how much we had saved. At night we'd sit in the dark and talk about how the poor family was going to enjoy having the money the church would give them.
The day before Easter, Ocy and I walked to the grocery store and the manager gave us three $20 bills and one $10 bill for all our change. We had never had so much money before.
As we walked home after church, we sang all the way. Later that afternoon the minister drove up in his car. Mom went to the door and then came back with an envelope in her hand. She opened the envelope and out fell a bunch of money. There were three $20 bills, one $10 and seventeen $1 bills. (1219)
Why did the pastor ask the people in church to save money?
How did the narrator’s family try to save some money?
Why could they hardly wait for Easter Holiday?
What happened later that afternoon?
Did the family expect anybody to bring them the money? Why?
Read the text and say if football is the most popular game in England. Are you fond of playing football? What other team games do you know? Are they popular in England or in Russia? What sport do you do?
FOOTBALL IN ENGLAND
Football is the most popular game in England – you understand it if you come to one of the important matches. Rich and poor, young and old, one can see them all there, shouting and cheering for one side or the other. Football matches are also watched by millions of people on TV.
One of the most surprising things about football in England to a stranger is the greatest knowledge of the game. Even the smallest boy can tell you the names of players in most of the important teams; he has photographs of them and knows the results of large number of matches. He will tell you, who he expects will win such and such a match, and his opinion is usually as good as of men three or four times older.
Most schools in England take football seriously – much more seriously than nearly all European schools. In England, it is believed that education is not only a matter of filling a boy’s mind with facts in the classroom: education also means character training; and one of the best ways of training character is by means of games, especially team games, where the boy has to learn to work with others for his team, instead of working selfishly for himself alone.
The school therefore arranges games and matches for its pupils. Football is a good team game, it is good exercise for the body, it needs skill and a quick brain, it is popular and it is cheap: as a result, it is a schools` favourite game.
Дополнительные тексты для чтения THE SPIDER
Have you ever seen a small animal with four pairs of legs, a body that is divided into two parts?
This is a spider. Spiders live all over the world. They do not live only in the coldest places. You may find them on land: on grass, bushes, trees, and on pools, rivers, seas. There are 15,000 different kinds of spiders. The smallest spider is less than 1 mm in body length, and the biggest one can have body length up to 90 mm.
The spider spins its web to catch insects for food. It spins its web all its life. The process of spinning a web is very long. People say that the spider is very persistent in its work. If you destroy its web, a spider will begin to spin a new web.
There is a story about a spider and a Scottish hero Robert Bruce (1274-1329). Robert Bruce was at the head of the Scottish army in the fight for the independence of Scotland against the English kings, Edward the First and Edward the Second. .
Once Robert Bruce was watching a spider spinning the web. Robert Bruce destroyed the web, and the spider began to spin a new web. Several times Robert Bruce destroyed the web, and each time the spider began its work from the beginning.
Watching the persistent work of the spider, Bruce decided to be as persistent as the spider and continue the fight for the independence of Scotland. And he defeated the English.
It was many years ago, but Scottish people still remember their great victory, and their great leader Robert Bruce.
Where do spiders live?
What does the spider do all its life? Why?
What happens if you destroy its web?
What nationality was Robert Bruce and who did he fight against?
Why did Robert Bruce decide to continue the fight? Who won?
MANUSCRIPTSby Jack London
When Martin Eden returned to San Francisco, he began to write. He sent his works to newspapers and magazines, but the editors sent his manuscripts back. Martine continued to write and study at the same time. Martine slept five hours: only a man in very good health could work for nineteen hours a day.
The weeks passed. All Martin’s money was spent and publishers continued to send his manuscripts back. Martin sold his coat, then his watch.
One morning the postman brought him a short thin envelope. There was no manuscript in that envelope, therefore, Martin thought they had taken the story. It was The Ring of the Bells. In the letter the editor of a San Francisco magazine said that the story was good. They would pay the author five dollars for it. And he would receive the check when the story was published.
Martin thought that five dollars for five thousand words was very little. After a few weeks the story was published, but the check didn’t` arrive. Martin had waited for about a month before he decided to go and get the five dollars from the editor.
He entered the office and said that he wanted to see Mr Ford – the editor. “I`m Martin Eden,” Martin began the conversation. He wanted to ask for his five dollars, but it was his first editor and he didn’t` t want to make a bad impression on him. To his surprise Mr Ford quickly stood up with the words “You don` t say so!” and the next moment, with both hands was shaking Martin` s hand.
Where did Martin Eden write his first stories?
What happened to most of his early works?
What was in the letter the postman brought him one morning?
How much money did Mr. Ford, his editor, was going to pay him? Was it a large sum of money for Martin’s story?
Why did Martin Eden come to Mr. Ford’s office? How was he accepted by the editor?
THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE
About one hundred years ago many educated people learned and spoke French when they met people from other countries. Today most people speak English when they meet foreigners. It has become the new international language. There are more people who speak English as a second language than people who speak English as a first language. Why is this?
There are many reasons why English has become so popular. One of them is that English has become the language of business. Another important reason is that popular American culture (like movies, music, and McDonald's) has quickly spread throughout the world. It has brought its language with it.
Is it good that English has spread to all parts of the world so quickly? I don't know. It's important to have a language that the people of the earth have in common. Our world has become very global and we need to communicate with one another. On the other hand, English is a fairly complicated language to learn and it brings its culture with it. Do we really need that?
Scientists have already tried to create an artificial language that isn't too difficult and doesn't include any one group's culture. It is called Esperanto. But it hasn't become popular. But maybe the popularity of English won't last that long either. Who knows? There are more people in the world who speak Chinese than any other language. Maybe someday Chinese will be the new international language.
What language do people learn and speak about one hundred years ago?
Why has the English language become so popular?
Why is it important to learn and speak English?
What do you know about Esperanto? Who was it created by?
Do you think Chinese will be the new international language in the future? Explain you point of view.
Inventions That Changed the World
For many centuries people watched birds and dreamed that they could fly. We cannot fly like birds: we don`t have enough strength in our arms to move wings up and down. We also really need the power of an engine to drive up forward. Many people died learning these lessons, before controlled flight became possible.
The first flying machine which could carry a human being was built in Spain in 875. Reports tell us that the inventor flew some distance, but the landing was hard: the man hurt his back badly and was never able to fly again.
It was possible that the news of his flight reached England, carried there by men returning from war in the Middle East. Whether this is true or not, in 1010 a man called Oliver jumped off a church roof in Mulmesbury. This time we know the distance of his flight - 125 steps.
In the last years of the 15th century, the Italian Leonardo da Vinci studied the flight of birds and made a number of drawings of flying machines. His early machines tried to copy the movement of birds` wings, which he didn’t fully understand. But less than 10 years before his death in 1519, he drew a machine with wings that didn’t move. One of the machines was built and it did fly.
In 1536 in France, Denis Bolor returned to the idea of moving wings. He tried to fly using wings that were moved up and down. The idea didn’t` t work and he fell to his death.
What did people dream about for many centuries?
Why can’t we fly?
Where and when was the first flying machine built?
Where did Oliver jump off?
What did Leonardo da Vinci study and make?
Miss Martha was 40 years old but she was not married. She had her own shop where she sold bread, both fresh and stale which was cheaper.
There was a customer who called at her shop two or three times a week. The man was not young but he was very pleasant. He wore cheap clothes but they always looked nice on him. He always bought stale bread and never fresh. Miss Martha decided that he was very poor.
She often thought of him and was always sorry that she couldn’t invite him to have dinner with her. She wanted to talk to him, to know more about him. She liked the man and began wearing her best dress. She wanted to help the poor man but didn’t know how to do it.
Once when her customer called on her to buy stale bread, Miss Martha had an idea and a good one, as she thought, to help him. She put some butter in the stale bread.
The next day two men came into the shop. One of them was her customer and the other – a young man. The customer was very angry and couldn’t speak to her. So the young man told Miss Martha everything. “We work together in the same office”, he said. “We use stale bread to take away to pencil lines from our plans. We have worked at a plan of a new district for six months. We finished it this morning and began taking away pencil lines from it with your bread. You see, as there was butter in the bread the plan is good for nothing, and we can’t show this plan to anybody now.”
When the men left, Miss Martha went to her room, took off her best dress and put on her old one. (1201)
What did Martha sell in her shop?
Who came to her shop two or three times a week?
Why did Martha decide to help the man? What did she do?
Why were the man and his friend angry?
How do you think Martha felt when the men left the shop?
Many national and local celebrations took place in Scotland in the past and some survive to this day. They start on January 1st and finish on the major celebration on the Scottish calendar – Hogmanay, New Year's Eve, on December 31st. Hogmanay, the celebration of bringing in the New Year is a more important festival in Scotland than Christmas.
The origin of the word ‘Hogmanay’ is lost in the past. Historians believe that the Scots inherited the celebration from the Vikings who, coming from even further north than they themselves, paid even more attention to the passing of the shortest day.
The Scots have a long rich heritage associated with this event. There are traditions such as cleaning the house (known as "redding") on December 31st (including taking out the ashes from the fire in the days when coal fires were common); visiting friends and relatives immediately after New Year's Eve, in the early hours of the morning of January 1st. First footing after the bells have rung in the New Year is still common - the "first foot" in the house after midnight should be male, dark, and handsome and should carry symbolic coal, shortbread, salt, black bun (a spiced cake) and, of course, whisky.
And Scotland is the only part of the UK that has a statutory holiday on January 2nd as well as January 1st - so they can recover from the excesses of December 31st! (1136)
What is the major celebration on the Scottish calendar?
What is the origin of “Hogmanay”?
How do the Scots celebrate this holiday?
Why don’t they work or study on January 1st and January 2nd?
Which celebration is more important in other parts of the UK: the New Year or Christmas?