Билеты для проведения государственной (итоговой) аттестации выпускников 9 классов общеобразовательных учреждений Костромской области в 2010 – 2011 учебном году содержание билеты для проведения государственной (итоговой)
One day an old man whose clothes were very old came to a woman’s house. He looked terrible. “Excuse me”, said the old man, “I’m thirsty and very hungry. Could you give me some food, please?” But the woman was very greedy.
“Go away”, she said, “I haven’t got any food”, “Oh”, said the old man. “That’s a pity. I’ve got a magic stone. I can make soup with it. But I need some water”. “Well, I’ve got a lot of water”, said the greedy woman. “A magic stone, oh?”
She brought a big pan of water. The old man put the stone into it. After a while he tasted the soup. “M-m-m-m. It’s very good,” he said, “it just needs some vegetables. It’s a pity you haven’t got any vegetables”.
“Oh, I can give you some vegetables”, said the woman. She ran away, and soon brought some potatoes, carrots and other vegetables. The old man put the vegetables into the pan. “Is it all right now?” asked the woman. “Yes, but it needs some meat”. “Oh, I have some”, said the woman and ran away. She came back with some meat, and the old man put it into the pan.
“Right”, said the man. “I can’t see the stone now. So the soup is ready. Bread is very good with stone soup. It’s a pity you haven’t got any bread”. “Oh, I’ve got some bread”, said the woman. She went away and soon came back with some bread in her hands. She put it on the table.
The woman tasted the soup. “M-m-m-m. This stone soup is very tasty, and you have made it with that magic stone”.
When they ate the soup, the old man said: “Here is the magic stone. You can keep it”.
“Oh, thank you”, said the woman. But remember”, said the old man, “for the best soup you need some meat, vegetables and some salt, too”.
How did the old man look like?
Why did he ask for some food?
What kind of soup did he make?
Why did the old man decide to make a stone soup?
How can you characterize the old man?
Read the text and say if you accept Ramit’s life values. What are your life values?
LIFE AT THE TOP
Ramit is the son of an Indian mobile-phone millionaire. He’s extremely tall and still growing. He eats an enormous amount, and only buys designer clothes. Ramit is not a shy boy – he knows what he wants and he usually gets it. “My dad once said I couldn’t have a BMW motorcycle, but I usually try to ask him for things face to face and he gives them to me in the end.” Ramit doesn’t to worry how much he spends. “I don’t want to boast but I have money – it’s experience I’m looking for,” he says. He likes spend his time bungee-jumping in Australia and going to night clubs in London. He lives in Delhi where his life is just as exotic. He and his younger brother have their own apartment in the family mansion. He has an expensive stereo, an exercise area and the very latest computer. The phone rings constantly and he has several servants to take care of his every need.
Билет № 14
Read the text and answer the questions
THE GIANT PANDA
An endangered species, the giant panda can only be found in the mountain bamboo forests of Western China. There are only about 1,000 wild giant pandas left in the world. Giant pandas are members of the bear family, and they are mammals. Even though giant pandas look just like bears, they certainly do not behave like bears. Unlike their meat-eating relatives, giant pandas are vegetarians for the most part of their time. Their favourite food is bamboo. Giant pandas must eat a lot of bamboo everyday to get enough nourishment. In fact, they spend at least 12 hours everyday eating about 33 pounds of bamboo. However, if they are extremely hungry and bamboo is nowhere to be found, giant pandas may eat grass, fruits, or sometimes, small animals like chicken.
Giant pandas do not live in groups. They are loners! They only leave their territory from March to May to look for a mate. Female giant pandas usually give birth to twins. Baby giant pandas are very small, blind, pinkish, and weigh about 5 ounces at birth. Strangely, mother giant pandas tend to choose to raise just one baby and leave the other to die. Mother giant pandas feed their babies with milk. A baby giant panda opens its eyes at six to seven weeks. It starts to learn how to walk when it is about three or four months old. Mother giant pandas look after their babies for about 18 months. Once the young is strong enough, it bids farewell to its mother and moves out to live independently. (1201)
Where do pandas live?
What class of animals do they belong to?
What is the main difference between giant pandas and bears?
Why do young giant pandas leave their mothers when they are about 18 months?
Are there any other endangered species in the world? What are they?
Read the text and say if English is a widely spread language. Why is it important to study English?
English is spoken as a first language by several countries including Great Britain, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, Canada, and the United States. While all of these countries share the same mother tongue, there are some differences in the way they speak and write.
The first difference is in the accent. Each country has its own accent. And within each country there are a variety of accents called regional accents.
Another difference is the spelling of some words, like ‘colour’ and ‘colour’, or ‘theater’ and ‘theatre’.
And a third difference is that some of the words are not the same at all. For example, Americans say restroom, Canadians say washroom, and the British say W.C. (water closet.) But all of these words have the same meaning (the room where the toilet is located.)
So which English is the best English to learn? Well, there is no best English. They are all equally good and correct. But two things may help you decide which one is best for you to study.
First of all, where do you live? If you are from South America, for example, you will probably have more exposure to North American English. If you live in Europe, most likely you will be more exposed to British English.
But no matter where you study English or whether it's British, American, Australian, or whatever, it's good to know a little about English in other countries.
Билет № 15
Read the text and answer the questions
The story of America’s Thanksgiving begins with the Pilgrims. Early in the 17-th century, the Pilgrims left England in search of religious freedom. In 1608, they sailed to Holland. Then, in 1620, they crossed the Atlantic by ship called the Mayflower.
After sailing for many weeks, the Pilgrims landed at a place now called Massachusetts. They planted the seeds they had brought from England. But the seeds didn’t grow well, and there was so little food for the Pilgrims that many of them starved to death.
Luckily for the Pilgrims, some nearby Indians came to rescue. They taught the Pilgrims to grow native food such as corn. Without this help, the Pilgrims would not have survived.
After the first harvest, the governor of Plymouth Colony - William Bradford - suggested that the Pilgrims hold a feast of thanksgiving. And to their thanksgiving feast the Pilgrims invited the Indians. The Pilgrims were grateful to the Indians for helping the Colony survive. In addition, they hoped that the celebration would strengthen their friendship with the Indians.
Nobody knows the date of the first Thanksgiving feast. But we do know that the Pilgrims and Indians enjoyed a huge feast of deer, goose, duck, oyster, eel, bread, fruit, and corn meal pudding.
In 1789 George Washington declared that Thanksgiving would be a national celebration. It is celebrated on the fourth Thursday in November. (1163)
When did the Pilgrims cross the Atlantic Ocean?
Who taught them to grow native food?
How did the Pilgrims thank the Indians?
Why did the Pilgrims leave England?
What other American holidays do you know?
Read the text and say if there are a lot of endangered animals. What can we do to save rare species? What environmental organizations and groups do you know? Would you like to become a member of such a group?
What do the following animals have in common: pandas, rhinoceros, loggerhead turtles, Californian condors, pink pigeons, small tooth sawfish, and Siberian sturgeons? They are all endangered animals! Animals become endangered for a variety of reasons. Sadly, humans are behind every one of them! Here are three reasons.
Hunting: for centuries, humans have hunted elephants for their impressive tusks, killed tigers for their beautiful furs, and scooped up sturgeons to make caviar. While we still have elephants, tigers, and sturgeons in the wild, we cannot say the same about many others that have simply disappeared!
Loss of habitats: humans and animals have always competed for land and other natural resources. We clear an area of a forest for farming. We cut down trees and build beautiful houses. At the same time that we are trying to make our life comfortable, we inadvertently destroy the habitats of wild animals.
Pollution: more than once we have seen on televisions that rescue workers are trying to save seabirds soaked in spilled oil. More than once we have heard about how carbon dioxide and other gases have raised the Earth temperature and caused global warming. Pollution has a long lasting, and usually irreversible, effect. If we choose to do nothing and continue to pollute our planet Earth, our next generations will have to bear the consequences of abnormal weather and polluted environment.
Read the text and answer the questions
THE MUSICAL GLASS.
Mary Elizabeth loved music. She was happy when she heard lovely sounds. She waited to hear the birds sing outside her window in the spring. She listened for the cricket's song when she swept the hearth in her mother's kitchen. The horses passing her papa's store made a "clip clop" sound. That was a song to Mary Elizabeth. These songs made her heart fill with joy.
Mary Elizabeth had only one wish. She wanted to make music on her own. She couldn't sing very well. Her brother, Matthew, had said, "You sound like the cat when Nana stepped on its tail." She loved music so much. Why couldn't she make music on her own?
Mary Elizabeth knew where to go when she was sad. Her Uncle Ben Franklin could always make her smile. Best of all, Uncle Ben loved music just like Mary Elizabeth. One morning, Mary Elizabeth stood outside Uncle Ben's workshop. She could hear him humming to himself. She knew something fun was going to happen. She opened the door and saw Uncle Ben at his work table. Oh, no! What had happened? Broken glasses were everywhere. There were big glasses, little glasses, and middle sized glasses spread out on his table. Wait a minute. Only the stems that held the glasses up were broken off. What was Uncle Ben doing? Uncle Ben saw the puzzled look on Mary Elizabeth's face. "Come, little songbird," he said. "I will show you how we can make beautiful music. We will use what is broken. We can turn it into something good."
What sounds did Mary Elizabeth enjoy?
What was her only wish?
Who made her smile and laugh when she was upset?
What did Mary hear while she was standing outside her uncle’s workshop?
Why was Mary puzzled when she opened the door and look at his table?
Read the text and say why people use the Internet to shop. What do you need to do the shopping on line? Why do people have to be careful making a purchase via the Internet? Can you go window-shopping on the Internet? What are the pros and cons of using the Internet?
SHOPPING ON THE INTERNET
Shopping on the Internet, or shopping on-line is becoming more and more popular. More and more people are using the internet to buy things. Why do people use the Internet to shop? Some people say it is more convenient. They don't have to leave their homes to order something, and they can shop for anything they want at any time, day or night. Other people say they can find things for sale that they can't find in the stores near their homes. Still other people say they can find better prices on the Internet.
If you want to buy something on the Internet, you need a credit card. You have to type your credit card number and information on the website and send it to the store over the Internet. You have to be sure that the store will not use your information in the wrong way. You don't want someone to get your credit card number and charge something to your account. Of course, you always have to be careful with your credit card number, because people sometimes steal credit card numbers from stores and restaurants too.
For people who are too nervous to shop on-line, the Internet is a good place to go window-shopping. Window-shopping is when you go to a store and look at the things for sale, but don't plan to buy anything. Window-shopping is easy on the Internet. You can see what kinds of products are available and how much they cost. You can visit stores with branches near you, or you can visit stores that are only on the Internet.
At the start of the twentieth century the idea of women in business seemed crazy. In those days men held all the positions of power and made all the decisions about money. They believed that a woman` s place was at home, looking after her children, cooking for her family and managing the house. If a woman needed to work she could perhaps find a job in a shop or in a factory, but she had no chance of working as a businesswoman or a banker, or a lawyer.
Women` s fashions in the USA and Europe at that time supported their position in society. Fashionable women wore long dresses that almost touched the ground. This made it difficult for them to drive a car, ride a horse or even walk quickly.
But many women were not happy with their position in society, and they didn’t like the clothes they had to wear. One of those people was a French woman called Gabrielle ‘Coco’ Chanel. When she went into business in 1910, she planned to change clothes that women wore. But over the next sixty years she did much more than that, as she became the richest and the most successful businesswoman.
Coco Chanel had no experience of business when she opened her first hat shop in Paris in 1910. She was only twenty-seven years old and she came from an ordinary family. Many of Coco’s customers in her first shop were her young women friends. They loved the simple but beautiful hats and dresses that Coco made for them, and soon her shop started to do well. (1181)
What were a woman’s opportunities in business?
What did fashionable women use to wear?
Why didn’t` all women like the style of clothes which were in fashion at that time?
How did Coco Chanel start her business?
Why did Coco Chanel become famous all over the world?
Read the text and tell a few words about Edinburgh. Speak about your native city (town, village).
Edinburgh is the capital city of Scotland. It is the second-largest city in the nation with the population of 448,624. It is located in the east of the country, just seventy kilometres apart from Glasgow, the first largest city of Scotland. Though the two cities are equally famous, Edinburgh has long established itself as the more popular tourist destination and there are many reasons for this.
The city of Edinburgh is divided into two areas, the Old Town (its historical centre) and the New Town (the city’s main shopping and commercial area). The Old Town includes picturesque streets, monuments and many wonderful cathedrals and churches. The most famous landmark of Edinburgh is Edinburgh Castle. The castle is open to the public and includes a number of museums too.
The New Town was first developed in the late 1700s. In its centre is Georges Street, and the city’s two main shopping areas Princes Street and Queens Street. The city contains many museum, public parks, markets, cafes, bars restaurants and has something really special to offer all its visitors.
Every year Edinburgh hosts a number of major festivals, none more famous than the Edinburgh International Festival, which takes place from August to early September. The festival attracts performers and audiences from all over the world and offers a mixture of theatre, films, music and comedy amongst other things.
Билет № 18
Read the text and answer the questions
A TEENAGGE BUSINESSMAN
When most 14-year-old boys are playing football or computer games after school, James Kenyon from Manchester is running his own successful business. “I’ve heard of a company in Scotland selling homemade bath products and thought it was a good idea.
My dad said I could do that, so I decided to take a chance,” James explains. That was two and a half years ago.
James started selling bath products to his friends and neighbours, but soon he began working for two local shopkeepers. Since he started his own soap company, selling homemade soap, bath salt and other bath products, James has earned over & 4,500.
James is proud of his success in business but he thinks there are more important things in his life. “I’ve learnt lots and I’m really enjoying it, but my school work always comes first.
James` s parents are proud of their son, they think that he plans everything really well – he does homework and he can focus on the business in his spare time. James says his parents have been a big support.
In 2006 James became a finalist in the Enterprising Young Brit Award. James is just one of an extraordinary group of enterprising young British businessmen who have innovative ideas and enthusiasm for business. Age and experience is certainly no obstacle to their success; their ambition and energy inspires them to create their money-making ideas.
What business does James Kenyon run?
How did he start his business?
Why do his parents support him?
What do you think helps him to be a successful businessman?
Do you think it` s good or bad for teenagers to run their own business?
Read the text and say a few words about George Washington .Do you know any other US presidents? What were they famous for? Who is the president of the United States at the present time?
George Washington was born February 22, 1732. He was the first president of the United States, elected by people in 1789. People call him the Father of their nation. He was one of the people who fought in the Revolutionary War and later helped write the United States Constitution. There is a famous story about George Washington when he was a young boy. It says that he chopped down his father's cherry tree with an axe. When his father asked, "Who did this?" young George replied "I cannot tell a lie. I did it." Many children have heard this story and are encouraged to tell the truth.
Abraham Lincoln was born on February 12, 1809. He became president in 1860. His presidency was difficult. The states in the north and the south were divided because of slavery. White people in the south owned black people. The north did not like it. A civil war began between the two sides. In the end, the northern states won and President Lincoln helped to free the slaves. He gave a very famous speech about how everybody had the right to be free and how all people were equal.
Both George Washington and Abraham Lincoln were very famous presidents in the United States. Today you can see their faces on American money. George Washington is on the one dollar bill and Abraham Lincoln in on the five dollar bill. Many schools and some cities are named after each president. And the State of Washington and Washington D.C. were both named after President Washington.
Билет № 19
Read the text and answer the questions
IT’S ONLY ME
After her husband had gone to work, Mrs Richards sent her children to school and went upstairs to her bedroom. She was too excited to do any housework that morning, because in the evening she would be going to a fancy dress party with her husband. She intended to dress up as a ghost and she had made her costume the night before. Now she was impatient to try it on. Though the costume consisted only of a sheet, it was very effective. Mrs Richards put it on, looked in the mirror, smiled and went downstairs. She wanted to find out whether it would be comfortable to wear.
Just as Mrs Richards was entering the dining-room, there was a knock on the front door. She knew that it must be the baker. She had told him to come straight in if ever she failed to open the door and to leave the bread on the kitchen table. Not wanting to frighten the poor man, Mrs Richards quickly hid in the small store-room under the stairs. She heard the front door open and heavy footsteps in the hall. Suddenly the door of the store-room was opened and a man entered. Mrs Richards realized that it must be the man from the Electricity Board who had come to read the meter. She tried to explain the situation, saying 'It's only me', but it was too late. The man let out a cry and jumped back several paces. When Mrs Richards walked towards him, he ran away, slamming the door behind him. (1110)
Why was Mrs Richards excited?
Why did she go downstairs in her costume?
Where did she hide when she heard a knock on the door?
What was the man’s reaction when he saw Mrs. Richards in the storehouse?
What holiday were Mr. and Mrs. Richards going to celebrate? Why do you think so?
Read the text and say a few words about transport in London. What transport do you prefer to use? Why?
London has five airports in or near the city. The most important airport is Heathrow; it is situated twenty four kilometres from the city centre. The city has eight big train stations, too. You can catch a train from London to Paris or Brussels now. Many people live outside London and come into the city for work every day. Children know about King’s Cross station because it is the train station in Harry Porter books.
In the UK people drive their own cars, that`s why the traffic is heavy on the roads. Drivers in the UK drive on the left side of the road! As there are a lot of cars in London, journey can take a very long time at the wrong time of day. But the city is famous for its black taxis and red buses. You can see some of London`s red buses today, and there are other buses, too. London’s taxi drivers have to remember 25000 streets in London. Before they can start driving people, they study maps and drive round the city for about two years; have to answer difficult questions about the best ways across London.
You can move across London by the Underground. Londoners also call these underground trains ‘the Tube’. The London Underground is the oldest in the world. People first used it in 1863. Now it is about 410 kilometres long. There are three hundred stations, and some of them are nearly sixty metres under the streets.
You can, of course, walk around London! No cars or buses can go across London newest bridge.