Гез Н.И. Формирование коммуникативной компетенции как объект зарубежных методических исследований. // Иностранные языки в школе. – 1995. - №2. - С. 17-24.
3. Поляков О.Г. К вопросу о коммуникативном языковом тестировании. // Лингвистика на рубеже XX –XXI веков: Итоги и перспективы. Тезисы международной конференции. - М.: МГУ, 2008.
New aspects for teaching external policy issues to undergraduate students:
an academic approach Maksut K.M.
Eurasian National University after L.N. Gumilyov (Kazakhstan) Бұл мақалада студенттерді теориялық тұрғыдан оқытудағы академиялық әдістемені қолданудың маңыздылығы баяндалады. Бакалавр-студенттер көбінесе теорияны меңгерудің академиялық әдістемесін оқытпайтын мектеп табалдырығынан тура жоғарғы оқу орындарына (ЖОО) түсуіне байланысты, олардың кейбірі университеттің алғашқы семестрлерінде оқытылатын елдің сыртқы саясатының теориясына тиісті көңіл бөлмейді. Мақалада соңғы жылдардағы студенттерді даярлау деңгейінің өзгерту мәселесі, сонымен қатар кәсіби өмірдегі теорияның маңыздылығын бакалавр-студенттерге жеткізу үшін оқытушылардың дәріске дайындық мәселелерін реттеудің бағыттары жарық көрген.
В данной статье рассматривается важность использования академического подхода для обучения студентов теории. В виду того, что студенты – бакалавры часто поступают в вузы прямо из школ, где они не обучались использованию академического подхода изучения теории, некоторые из них не проявляют должного интереса к теории внешней политик стран, которая преподается в первых семестрах в университете. В статье освящен вопрос изменения уровня подготовки студентов в последние годы, и как преподаватели должны регулировать вопросы подготовки к занятиям, для того чтобы показать студентам – бакалаврам важность теорий в их профессиональной жизни. Introduction
The evolving global and hemispheric events have brought new challenges and new opportunities to the dynamic process of human, social and economic development in every part of the world.
In charting its way forward, the World Community has placed people at the centre of its agenda. The Community has also resolved to strengthen its institutions so that they are well equipped to function effectively in the increasingly competitive global economy. Good governance and democracy will remain the hallmarks of our political, social and economic development. These are some of the elements of the vision of Kazakhstani government as our community seeks to participate fully in the hemisphere and in the wider international community.
We have to show the students that the international community is sharing this vision with us, a vision that places priority on the human potential, on many people – on all our people. This is in keeping with the focus of providing external policy of our country. In this case the education for international relations students is on trial according to constantly changes occurred in external policy of any country.
Education itself nowadays is gradually changing. Google has changed the way we all study. Just a few years ago, the only option to find articles or any other publication was through good libraries and brochures. Information used to take too long to get to other places, especially to other countries. Nowadays, distance is no longer a problem. Books can get anywhere in the world within a couple of days and articles can be published and seen simultaneously by anyone everywhere in the world. Good researches can be done from home at such a rapid speed.
In order to teach the young generation the new aspects of any subject, we have to change the approaches by which we are going to provide information.
We have to analyse how technology has changed education, the new kind of demands from the students and the necessity of teachers to adjust to new kinds of pedagogies and metolologies in order to make classes more attractive to the new generations. The focus will be the necessity of teaching well theories to International Relations BA students. After explaining why it is so important to teach theories, we will go on to some suggestions of approaches for the new teaching, such as the use of comparative technology.
The change in both education and students
Moran  identifies as a general complaint from students at all levels of education that classes are boring and they can no longer stand the traditional way of teaching. Students complain about the distance between theory and practise, about keep listening to a teacher for hours and about the kind of use of technology in education. Most educational institutes have good technological equipment, such as data shows, computers and teleconference equipments. Nevertheless, the way of teaching remains mostly the same. The new media was incorporated only marginally. Although school remains the main certifier and organiser of education, pupils have got the opportunity of learning from many other sources. One can easily learn how to manage any computer program from a video in Youtube rather than by reading the tutorial. It is impossible to deny teaching and learning is challenged as they have never been before. Education has become much more complex [1, 245-246].
On-line education is a reality more common each day. Without questioning the quality of such programs, the fact is that it is possible to have a BA degree by attending video-conference lectures, on-line classes and guidances. The students need to attend classes only occasionally and usually for tests. Traditionalists would say it is not worth comparing both systems. However it is necessary to recognise that student's demands are no longer the same. People are used to on-time information, to computer presentations and to worldwide interaction. The question teachers and professors must ask nowadays is how to bring students' attention to class once again.
A joint work between methodology and pedagogy on each area of science has to be developed.
Classroom must be a place to incite students to think. Teachers now have to have a new approach and make use of technology to bring students' interest back to classroom. Moran says that the new “infra-structure must serve changes on the teachers' behaviour, changing from being a “nanny”, who gives them everything ready, chewed, to help them, on the other hand, on organising the informative chaos, on the management of the contradictions of values and visions of the world, meanwhile, on the other hand, the teacher incites the student, “upsets” him, deinstalls him, incites him for changes and not to remain settled on the first synthesis” [1, 247].
From the methodological aspect, more than inciting, any teacher has got to help students to organize the information they have available, so students can understand them. And “Understand is organise, systematise, compare, evaluate, contextualise” [1, 245-247].
. He keeps on by saying that a second pedagogic dimension is to question and to create a tension on the understanding students had on the previous step. More than organising, a teacher must help students to surpass their knowledge.
Disorganising instigate students, and, by doing so, it brings their attention to looking for new information that might help them to understand a bit more the problems given them by the teacher.
The use of external policy issues as an explanation of dynamic changes
According to some experts, external policy is pulse of state’s policy. In order to explain what is external policy we can have two moments in education, and they can be both used alternately or combined. They can be used to organise or to disorganise the knowledge. One can use a video in the classroom to confirm a theory or a specific point of view which has been worked already, or to incite new topics, ideas, positions, perspectives or values.
The use of videos and other popular culture would help to bring the academia to the world people live in. It exists because of the community and for the community.
In order to comprehend the difficult nature of external policy of countries it is important to study foreign affairs and global issues among states within the international system, including the roles of states, inter-governmental organizations (IGOs), non-governmental organizations (NGOs), and multinational corporations (MNCs). It is both an academic and public policy field, and can be either positive or normative as it both seeks to analyze as well as formulate the foreign policy of particular states. It is often considered a branch of political science (especially after 1988 UNESCO nomenclature), but an important sector of academia prefer to treat it as an interdisciplinary field of study.
In this case it is important to note that students must study also the psychological factors in international relations which come from the understanding that a state is not a 'black box' as proposed by realism, and that there may be other influences on foreign policy decisions. Examining the role of personalities in the decision making process can have some explanatory power, as can the role of misperception between various actors. A prominent application of sub-unit level psychological factors in international relations is the concept of Groupthink, another is the propensity of policymakers to think in terms of analogies.
The Importance of Theory to the International Relations field
According to some experts, “we acknowledge that theory, even if it transforms the perceptions or concepts, if not put to practise won't change reality”. This claim, brought from the critical theory, has its validation if one supposes theories can change reality. It is not the purpose of this article to discuss it, nor is it to support or deny the claims of the critical theories. But it can be brought from this statement that theory without a visual concept to practise is nothing.
The argument here is to show precisely all students must know theories in order to be able to understand and analyse reality. International Relations, just as any other social science, is subject to the illusion that practise can be diverted from theory. Anybody can be put in a position and be asked to perform a given task. Some might do it, but just the ones with real knowledge of the theoretical implications will do it well. So the most important aspect at teaching International Relations is to bring students' attention to theory. And, to do so, new pedagogic approaches should be used in order to enchant the Google generation.
The use of multimedia to teach International Relations Theory
Theory is extremely necessary for the good development of future practitioners. There is no cognitive analysis without theory and, to be recognised as a “serious” science, International Relations must have theories more and more developed and studied.
The problem raised is that not all pupils are interested in studying theory. Those pupils will either quit the course for not finding a cognitive practise to work with or will be less prepared practitioners. What can teachers do?
The first part of this paper has tried to show the importance of teachers understanding the new demands brought by their students. Technology has made it very easy to bring new assets to class and new experiences and interest might be born from that. On that sense, teachers have got to look for a new way of bringing students' attention to theory. Students might be asked to theoretically analyse three different films by using theories of International Relations. At first, there might be a fear that students would just be in class to watch the film and after that they would not take part on the discussions.
The whole idea of the course is to bring students' attention to the study of theories by usage of mass media, and they might be more interested in theories after the experiment.
Films, the open lectures, the use of multimedia resources can help students visualise what they have read on the literature. By doing so, theory becomes a little closer to real life for them. The exercise here is to help them to think abstractly and see theory outside the books. One can explain the anarchical environment of the system by using a billiard board as an example or can simply show a short film with a group of children without any adults nearby disputing who commands the group. Films can be a good source of theoretical analysis because, even though some of them are simply not real, a parallel to reality can be done, so pupils can identify both what the suppositions for each film theories would expect and how that situation would probably be dealt in real life. The secret is to look for films that can exemplify a given theory or concept or even help them arise questions to later be theoretically analysed.
The use of new media is just another tool in trying to bring pupils' attention to the association between theory and practise.
Being theories a milestone for International Relations studies and being students not the same they were before the technological boom, teachers are asked now much more than a couple of years ago.
They shall be more than instructors, but also tools on the hands of the students to show them how theory and practise are much closer to them than what they think.
Moran J. M. To change the form to teach and to learn with technologies. 2004.
Clark G. A Farewell to Alms. 2007.
Slovenská cesta transformácie ekonomiky a konvergencie s Európskou úniou J.Mihalik. - Bratislava: Slovenská spoločnosť pre medzinárodné vzťahy a porozumenie. 1998.
Integračné a dezintegračné procesy v strednej Európe v 20. storočí editori J. Marušiak, K.Sládek, P.Zelenák. -Bratislava: Veda, 2008.
Іnnovative techniques in teaching english at grass-roots level Ms. Khan Mahlaqa Afzal
Maulana Azad College of Arts (India)
Данная статья главным образом рассматривает приемы и методы обучения иностранному языку в многочисленных группах. эти методы основаны на формировании коммуникативной компетенции студентов и интегрировании языковых навыков в процессе обучения. что касается приемов, то они апробированы на занятиях английского языка в колледжах Индии, а также рассмотрены их положительные и отрицательные стороны эффективности их применения.
Берілген мақалада шет тілін әр түрлі топтарда оқытудың әдістері мен тәсілдері қарастырылады. Бұл әдістер студенттердің коммуникативті құзыреттілігін қалыптастыру мен оқыту барысында тілдік дағдыларды қолдануға негізделген. Тәсілдер Үнді елінің колледждерінде ағылшын тілі сабақтарында сынақтан өтіп, оларды қолданудың тиімді және тиімсіз жақтары қарастырылды. Teachers of English as foreign language or secondary language face numbers of problems, such as large classes’ lack of appropriate material, books and technological equipments. It is widely known fact that teaching and learning a foreign language cannot reduced to the direct teaching of linguistic skills like phonology, morphology, vocabulary and syntax. The contemporary models of communicative competence show that there is much more to learn in a language. Teaching requires creativity, there are lots of different methods, strategies, and techniques that can be applied and brought into classroom Teacher needs effective, efficient and innovative techniques to help students in improving their language skills as well enjoy learning process and learn the target language. Any teaching technique or method include portfolio based instruction will not be fully successful if students are not engaged in the process. Techniques are closely related to methods and approaches:
Different theories about the nature of language and
how languages are learned (the approach) imply
different ways of teaching language (the method),
and different methods make use of different
kinds of activity (techniques).
(Longman dictionary of applied linguistics 1985)
The innovative techniques according to me are those which can be fun for students as well as teacher such as group work, project making activities and questioning. By using such activities students become more motivated and encouraged to learn, especially when materials and activities are interesting for students the learning process turn into spontaneous adoption of language. among all these the most important and effective in learning English language is group work, which helps students to overcome the barriers of being shy to share and speak in front of other, here student have chance to learn from each other as well improve their performance. In country like India we have the problem of TTT (Teacher talking time) many teacher teach standing at the front of the class and students sitting in row and listening. Teacher explain a new theme or a topic and after some explanation the students do some practice exercise or translation of text and they are assessed whether they have understood what they have been explain by teacher. Teacher does most of the talking throughout the lesson and only teacher is the most active person. This is against the language teaching. The more the teacher talk, the less the opportunity is there for students to learn. Some teacher are afraid of silence in their class so they prefer to speak and some teacher think that it is more useful for students to listen to teacher to learn language. Which is not at all true, this problem can be solve by group work
Technique no .1
Let me explain the technique of group work:
Suppose in the class you have 50 students you can divide them into 5, 6 or even 10 groups. After dividing the class into groups and if one group consist 5 members give each member one responsibility or role to perform or teacher can ask them to choose their leader, secretary monitor, and representative or speaker of the group. It is important to give them role to perform and have responsibility to carry the whole group work. The second step in group work is giving clear instructions about time and topic for example student you have 10 minutes to discuss your favourite city, you can discuss about
1. Which is your favourite city?
2. Why do you like it?
3. What are the three places you want to visit in your favourite city?
4. Can you buy anything special there?
After instructions ask group to start discussion ask leader to see weather discussion is going on right direction or not ask monitor to control and maintain the discipline in the group, secretary take all important points, while the discussion teacher must go to every group and help them in their discussion check whether they are really busy in discussion and assess them if it is necessary. After completion of time teacher have to give them the list of Adjective such as
2. Big / small
3. Cheap /expensive
And ask them to write a paragraph in 10 minutes using adjectives. After 10 minutes secretary will write a Para using adjective with the help of group members and speaker of the group will present it. And for 5 groups it will take only 10 to 15 minutes. In group work teacher can teach all four skills listening,(to each other and to the instructions of teacher) speaking ( with each other under the supervision of teacher)reading( their notes and list of adjective) and writing( the paragraph about MY FAVOURITE CITY). And group work increases students talking time ( STT ) opportunities to use the target language to communicate with each other and develop the sense of co-operation , sense of progress and achievement from group work activities. Group work is good teaching technique because
· Give all student lots of practice time to use the language.
· Allows the quieter students to speak to group members, instead of speaking in front of whole class.
· Teaches students to help each other with their learning.
· Can improve motivation and students ‘ use of English’
· Allow students to talk about their own ideas, opinion and real life facts, so that they can develop real communication skills.
· Helps them to become more accurate and fluent in English.
· Varieties of groupings give students a change of working styles and learning experience.
Technique no .2
The second technique which can be use as a follow up of group work is project making activities which teacher can co relate with group work is project making task or activities
After learning about MY FAVOURITE CITY and listening to each other through group work, students will gets more and new ideas .now the students have suggested to prepare a project according to the theme, it can be individual work, pair work or even group work. The topic related to earlier topic can be my city, my favourite country, or my favourite holiday spot. Here teacher must give them clear instructions about what they suppose to make, the structure, the materials, given time and how they can make this project interesting. Questions foe such project can be;
1. What time of year you should go there?
2. What are three things you can do there?
3. Can you buy anything special?
4. What shouldn’t a visitor miss?
5. What shouldn’t people do?
Ask students to use pictures and while writing the project they have to use verbs such as should spend, can go, should visit, should try, shouldn’t miss and can see.
The student will have the clear purpose for their project work and they are energized motivated to work hard to improve their writing skill and they have freedom to create their own masterpieces. Throughout this process, the teacher is not only responder or evaluator but the students are also involved in responding of their classmates. In group work they will learn the meaning and use of adjective and in project work the focus will be on writing with the help of MODEL VERBS CAN AND SHOULD. There are many types of project that can be done in classroom they can be related to the real world and interesting current events and the more they will result in use of authentic verbal communication use to accomplish the task. This type of teaching required knowing about student’s needs and interests and applying that knowledge to activities and tasks. This lead student’s to realize that learning has a purpose and learning with purpose is bound to be exciting.
The another innovative technique, which i personally like the most and which cover all the four skills in learning English as a second language is Brainstorm
In brainstorm, the students are given a single stimulus which serves as a clue for large number of responses. The stimulus may be a question with plenty of possible answers like what do you do when.......? , picture to be described, commented or ask about (describing picture or brief text that can be expanded in different ways or problem demanding diverse solutions.
The advantages of this technique are that it provides a large volume of productive language practice on the part of the learners relative to the contribution of the teacher and that it allows students to compose utterance at convenient level for them. It also encourages originality and humour, and many brainstorming activities interesting and amusing results. The wide range of possibilities are open to participants and the fact that many of them are original and entertaining means to tend to be motivated to contribute and activity usually move forward briskly, with a high ‘density’ of learners participation.
Brainstorming can be given as written work as well, in class or for homework assignments; or written and oral work can be combined, as when learners are asked first to note down all the ideas they can think of and then to share them. Teacher can ask what do you think when i say MY SCHOOL; they may say beautiful building, big class rooms, friends, teachers, play ground, favourite subjects, or even timing of the school.
Ask them to arrange all the points and write a paragraph about my school, this activity can be done as individual or pair works instead of in the full class.
While using techniques teacher of English language must have some guidelines such as
· What level of learner is this suitable for?
· How suitable is this activity in terms of age and experience?
· What are the learning outcomes of this activity?
· What are the stages and tasks design for this activity?
· Does the teacher need to pre teach some vocabulary or other language items before the students can do this activity successfully?