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Актуальные проблемы философии и культурологи

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O. Birjukova

Group: 3111

Saint-Petersburg State University of Economics

Scientific/Language Advisor: Seniour Lecturer, Maria.A. Nosova


The American economy is a system characterized by freedom of private enterprise. It has emerged as a result of the American workers’ labor, consumers’ demand expressed in the marketplace, private businesses’ effort and the activities of government officials at all levels who have been undertaking the tasks individual Americans failed to accomplish themselves. 

The nation's income and productivity have risen enormously over the past 70 years. The amount of money spent for personal consumption purposes tripled in real purchasing power during this period. Following growth in labor productivity, the gross national product per capita quadrupled

Different sectors of the American economy altogether produce almost $4,000 million dollars worth of goods and services annually. Moreover, each year they are turned into $ 190,000 million more. The consumption of these goods and services is huge. Most Americans consider themselves part of the middle economy class, and relatively few are extremely wealthy or extremely poor.

Americans’ housing facilities are tremendously various. These include single detached houses (62 percent) with a median cost of $112,500. People also live in apartments, town-houses and mobile homes. About 3.6 percent of all Americans live in public (government-supplied or subsidized) housing.

The government plays an important role in the economy, as is the case in all countries. Each year the government spends some $33.31 million on schools and provide a free public education for 29.1 million primary-school pupils and 11.4 million youth in secondary schools. Approximately 60 percent of the students who graduate from secondary schools attend colleges and universities, 77.2 percent of which are supported by public funds. The U.S. is the word leader regarding the percentage of the population that gets a higher education. Total amount of students enrolled in higher education schools is 13.4 million.

The bulk of America's wealth is produced by private industries and businesses—ranging from giants like General Motors, which sells $96,371 million worth of cars and trucks each year—to thousands of small, independent entrepreneurs. Nearly 233,710 small businesses were started in the U.S. in 1987. About 75 percent of American products currently face foreign competition within markets in the United States. America has been traditionally supporting free trade.

In 1990 119.55 million Americans constituted the labor force, representing 63.0 percent of the population over the age of 16. The labor force has grown rapidly since 1955 as a result of the increase in number of working women. Women now represent more than half of America's total work force. The entry of the "baby boom" generation into the job market has also enhanced the work force pool.

American industries have been turning more and more service-oriented. Of 12.6 million new jobs created since 1982, almost 85 percent have been in service industries.

Recently, unemployment in the United States was calculated at about seven percent. The government provides short-term unemployment compensation to replace wages lost during unemployment. About 80 percent of all wage and salary earners enjoy the right to use unemployment insurance. In addition, both the government and private industries provide job training to help unemployed Americans.

UDC 274.1

N. Bogatova

Group 3111

Saint-Petersburg State University of Economics

Scientific/Language advisor: Associate Prof. Olga.V. Suslova

In a process of entering into a post-industrial era, society and culture as well as the knowledge status changed. The scientific knowledge is considered as a type of a discourse. The science problem even more often contacts various aspects of studying of language, linguistic concepts, and communication theories. The changes happening in science are connected with two functions: research and information transfer and knowledge. [1]

One of the main trends in modern times was the process of globalization, due to the formation of a single global economic space based on information and communication technologies. Although the issue of chronological framework and substantive aspects of this phenomenon remains open, a number of interrelated factors, manifested in international development 10-15 years ago, suggest about the objective character of globalization of the world historical process. Among these factors are the following:

First, the ever-increasing economic interdependence between the entities of the world political and economic space associated with the increasing influence of information and communication technology and finance and cross-border flows of capital.

Second, increased contradictions between the traditional function of the state to ensure its sovereignty and the growing dependence of national institutions power in the political decision on the situation in the global economy the system.

Third, the emergence of new actors and the world political economic processes – the transnational corporations (TNCs), which along with States have influence on world development.

Fourth, the formation of international global culture, and the standardization of consumption.

These are the most common factors. However, globalization is not global and Universal as it seems at first glance. It has its limits, and they constantly changing. Globalization is, above all, the economic relationship. Trends of economic globalization are manifested in the field of international trade and financial relations in the context of increasing liberalization, they associated with breakthroughs in the field of information and communication technology and research and development activities (R & D). First of all, globalization is a process, and secondly is infrastructure. If you give a definition of globalization, it is the formation of a single global economic space based on information and communication technologies. In other words, the infrastructure of globalization is a way, a form of social development as expressed in technology, mainly information and communication technologies. [2] Data technology, e.g. internet or software for automating business processes, are essentially technology interaction. Thus, the essence of globalization is public relations: the relationship between individuals, groups, institutions, States, regions – in which this information and communication impact technology and they are changing. To clarify – these are strictly certain trends in public relations, the most complete manifested in the economic sphere, and not the entire spectrum.

  1. AE-magazine - №4-2012.

  2. Беляков Г., Шишкин Н. [эл. ресурс] – режим доступа: http://www.sfu-kras.ru/

UDC 339.5


Group 1321

Saint-Petersburg State University of Economics

Scientific/Language advisor: Seniour Lecturer Оlga.V. Abramova

Modern processes, due to the internationalization or globalization, require more economic knowledge and experience for being successful in any business in comparison with the period of twenty or thirty years ago, especially in the countries of the former socialist bloc, including, Russia. They were isolated from the rest of the world and the economic agents were not able to interact with foreign partners. In addition to that, we experienced a different type of economy that time, so the introduction of market economy has become some revelation in actions. So in any case, we have lagged behind too much, and that can for sure influence the knowledge and success while competing with professionals from other countries. We need to fill in the gap we are having now as soon as possible.

And today one of the ways to do it is to master all methods and aspects of modern business practices. It is an internship which gives a profound knowledge of absolutely new phenomena and methods of doing business.

It is really important to investigate and identify the main unique features of this type of "studies", which can increase the level of training at the world level.

The main objectives are the following. Firstly there some research and comparison of internships with other methods of professional development (seminars, etc) should be done. Secondly, it is interesting to analyze the experience of students who have been once on such trips. And finally it is of utmost important to discuss the above mentioned questions with authorities and gurus of today’s business. All these issues will be pondered upon in the report.

UDC 339.9


Group M5523

Saint-Petersburg State University of Economics

Scientific/Language Advisor: Seniour Lecturer Olga.V. Abramova

Today the world is developing so fast that we do not even notice it. Something new is being created, something that we have never seen or heard before. We can start a business easily but we should be aware of the business processes that are taking place now. Very often they can help beginners in business. So, franchising is one of such notions of new business models. It is a very perspective type of running a business.

Franchising is a marketing system involving a two-party legal agreement, whereby the franchisee conducts business according to the terms specified by the franchisor.

There are the following types of franchising:

  1. Product distribution franchise

  2. Business format franchise

  3. Management franchise

The advantages for the franchisor are as follows:

  1. Franchising brings more money to expand a business.

  2. The opportunity to learn more about the product and services.

The advantages for the franchisee are:

  1. You own your own business, but you do not stay alone with all the problems and risks.

  2. Franchising is a quick and effective start of business.

  3. Franchising allows the use of a trade mark's reputation and the franchisor.

Franchising has got disadvantages for the franchisor as well.

  1. Franchisees are not employees of the franchisor as franchisees are independent business owners.

  2. If a franchise company is doing badly, it has a bad effect on the company as a whole.

  3. The successful franchisees can leave the company.

Disadvantages for the franchisee are:

  1. Franchisee must follow the rules of a franchise contract.

  2. While the franchisee is an independent owner of the business, it is an important link in the network of franchise owners.

Franchising in Russia is a very popular form of running a business. It has been growing steadily, especially for the last 5 years. The examples of the stable development of franchising are McDonald’s, Coca Cola, Nike, Adidas, Subway, Starbucks Coffee, Dunkin Donuts. Franchising plays an important role in the economy and may soon become a dominant form of retailing.

UDC 811.111

А. Chicherina

Group М5523

Saint-Petersburg State University of Economics

Scientific/Language Advisor: Seniour Lecturer OlgaV. Abramova

It’s generally agreed today that, English is language number 1 in the world of foreign languages. It’s undeniable that English plays an important role in many areas such as science, technology, economy, trade, tourism and sport. Moreover English is an international language. It’s a well-known fact that English is the working language at most of the international, scientific, technical, political, and professional conferences and seminars. It’s clear that English has the same important role in the world today, as the one played by Latin in Europe in the Middle Ages. English is studied by everybody and everywhere: in schools, universities, etc.

Knowledge of the English language has got a real value. Knowledge of English has got so many advantages. We can use English when we travel abroad, in order to get a good perspective job, to communicate with people, to study at a foreign university, to do business. It is know that the importance of English in today's world is difficult to be overestimated. It goes without saying that any educated person simply should be proficient in English, because it is the key to self-education and self-improvement.

There are many areas of English. We need English in business, in communication, in the travel, in policy, and, of course, in education. English is a good tool in business. There is some special Business English, that is the language of international business and trade. The main purpose of English in business is to establish links with foreign partners, to have an opportunity to discuss common business with other foreign companies.

People in their life tend to visit as many countries as possible. The main language in communication with tourists is English. It means that, people of different nations will understand you.

The other good thing about learning English is that it provides an opportunity to study in prestigious universities abroad, because it is one of the most important selection criteria for admission to university. English is the working language of many political organizations. English helps people from all over the world to understand each other, exchange ideas, new discoveries, studies, research papers, work together - it really eliminates the boundaries among people of different nationalities.

The role of English in our life is precious, and that again convinces us, that in our time we just need to know English. If you know English, the possibilities are limitless!

UDC 123.1

M. Fedorova

Group 7201

Saint-Petersburg State University of Economics

Scientific/Language Advisor: Associate Prof. Olga A. Karabetskaya, Candidate of Pedagogy


People start to become professionals from university. It’s a period, when it’s necessary to get an experience in all possible ways, from all possible countries. Thus, talking about modern trends in developing professionals, I would like to look deep into the case-studies. Case-study is an intensive description and analysis of economic, social and business situations. Nowadays this is the link between real companies and students.

How does it work? The company has some problems in one of the following directions: marketing, management, logistics, human resources etc. To solve it, economists transform this problem into the written form and give it to students as a task. At that moment a huge problem becomes a game, where the groups of students try to find the best and the most creative solution and present it to a jury. As a result, the companies get fresh, open-minded ideas for business and potential employees, students get an experience of working in a group, solving real problems and potential work place.

However, case method is not developed in Russia. The companies don’t use it in solving problems; the universities don’t use it in studying. In comparison to that, European universities even make special bachelor programs for compilation of case-study. One of the brightest examples in Russia is the Changellenge. This is the organization, which successfully specializes on making case competitions all over the country and abroad.

Case-studies can be national and international. The language of international cases is usually English, and the competition looks like Olympic games, where the team presents the country. Here is an example. The L'Oreal Group, the world's largest cosmetics and beauty company, holds an annual case for students which is called Brandstorm. There is a site with full information and resources about this case. Preselection takes place inside the country, semi-final is between nearby countries and then final with about 20 teams. As the result, people discover other cultures, traditions and habits, and at the same time as they have different mentality they can suggest the unusual decisions.

L’oreal’s competition is one of the biggest case-studies. But apart from it there are some international student associations, which organize such events: BEST, AIESEK, SIFE, ESTIEM etc. AIESEK became the first students’ organization in 1949. And after that international student activity started to expand rapidly, and just since 1984 to 1990 other 3 organizations had been set up. It means that such activity is really effective and it develops professional skills.

In conclusion, world without borders gives a possibility to be more open-minded, discover foreign culture and gain job experience. And as it’s a plant of modern trends in such world, the case-study is one of the most perspective, especially in our country, ways to become an international professional.

UDC 811.111- 26

Y. Feofanova

Group 721

Saint-Petersburg State University of Economics

Scientific/Language Advisor: Associate Prof. Veronika.V. Tepkeeva, Candidate of Philology

What is English for each of us? The answer is simple and clear - English is a means of the international communication. But is this the function of the English language in modern life? In fact, English is performing many functions.

The modern world is developing, international relations are expanding and will inevitably penetrate into our lives. In modern society, parents are interested in having their child at an early age he studied various foreign languages ​​and cultures of other countries. If we are speaking about Russia, the Russians second language is English. Why? The answer is simple.

Firstly, development of children in general in any branch - is cool. It forms them as the personality, gives comprehensive development, and promotes acquisition of experience in various spheres of life.

Secondly, while learning English, we enrich the language, that is, a means of our communication, the person becomes an erudite, it’s so nice to talk to him - to communicate, because his speech contains no words of parasites, and he does not resort to verbal repetition.

Thirdly, knowledge of English can provide a successful career in the future, because it gives the opportunity to study at prestigious universities abroad. Also, all international competitions and conferences are held in English. Most of the computer programs and applications are in the English language, most important pages in the Internet are available in English. Interesting and necessary literature is published in English. If we do not know English, we have to wait for the online translator, which, as you know, has the ability to distort information and doesn’t convey the author's thought in its entirety. English language is the language of businessmen, politicians, scientists, writers and other educated people.

Certainly, we can say that English is one of the most important components of modern human life, it forms the personality, makes people sociable, self-assured, demanded on a labor market. Wherever we go, in whatever country fate would bring us, with any people we would want to talk- English will always help us. The modern world has no place to be without an international means of communication, and this role is performed by English language.

UDC 811.111-26

A. Ibragimova

Group 721

Saint-Petersburg State University of Economics

Scientific/Language Advisor: Associate Prof. Veronika.V. Tepkeeva, Candidate of Philology

Studying foreign languages is one of the major modern trends in developing professionals. If you intend to become successful and work yourself up to the top there will be need to have a perfect command of the several languages. Moreover, possessing knowledge about foreign cultures and languages gives great opportunities to establish interpersonal relationship, gaining clients' confidence and approval. English is one of the most common languages in the world. According to the magazine “English Teaching Professional”, approximately 1.5 billion people speak English.

Certainly, the main purposes of studying a foreign language are understanding other people and being understood by interlocutors. However, knowledge of grammar and vocabulary is insufficient to be fluent in English. You should right use and realize non-verbal communications and phonetic means of expression which include accentual and intonational means, mimicry, gesticulation, visual contact, intonation, rate of speech, tone and ect. Furthermore, you ought to know, love and respect foreign culture. In this work would like to bring the problem dealing with establishing interpersonal relationship and transmitting of a message to the light.

According to associate professor, John Platt, several problems may arise in communication between those individuals for whom English is a “native”, “foreign”, “second” or “indigenized” language, namely engaging, disengaging, requesting, acceding to a requesting, positive responding and negative requesting. All people speaking English can be divided into four groups: E-interlocutors, EF-interlocutors, ES-interlocutors and EN-interlocutors, last one includes members of a speech communities which uses an indigenized English [1].

First point which may be a cause of confusion in exchanging information is engaging. In this phase two or more interlocutors start some sort of verbal exchange. For example, some ES-speaker, e.g. Chinese, using a routine from their Chinese communicative system, are inclined to greet their E-interlocutor with question “Have you eaten yet?”. Besides being inappropriately interpreted by last one as an invitation to lunch it may also cause temporary embarrassment. Second point is disengaging. E-speakers try to cushion the effect of initiating the termination of a verbal exchange by giving reasons for the termination or by some another way. ES- and NE-interlocutors may interpret E-speaker’s disengagement such as “see you late” or “we’ll keep in touch” as speaker’s insincerity. Third point is requesting. Asking someone a favour in NE-system, e.g. in Singapore, Asian is of a direct nature, far more direct than those used typically by E-interlocutors. And the last point is negative responding to offer or invitation. In many Asian cultural it’s considered rude to give a straightforward ‘no’. ES-/NE-speakers talk around subject and avoid a direct refusal, it may become a reason of incomprehension by E-speakers.

So, now we can see that a qualified professional should know features of other cultures and take them into consideration. Because this knowledge provides establishing stable interpersonal relationship and mutual understanding. You will be able to communicate without confusion and misapprehension.

1. English across Cultures. Cultures across English: a reader in cross-cultural communication/ ed. by Ofelia García; Ricardo Otheguy. – Berlin; New York: Mouton de Gruyter, 1989, p. 20-23.

UDC 316.776

I. Kharchenko

Group 3321

Saint-Petersburg State University of Economics

Scientific/Language Advisor: Associate Prof. Olga A. Karabetskaya, Candidate of Pedagogy

Once German radio announcer said: “Traditional post is dead. Now no one sends postcards by snail mail.” That was heard by one German postcrosser, who found his address and told other postcrossers: “Hey! That man doesn’t believe in power of postcrossing! Let us show him it!” And this careless announcer was overwhelmed by postcards: he got more than 400 during one month!

What is postcrossing? It is an international project, an idea of which is: “if you send a postcard, you will receive one back from a random postcrosser from somewhere in the world.” Your postbox can become the box with surprises: you will never know, what will wait you inside. It sounds amazing, doesn’t it?

By postcrossing you can get not only a lot of little pieces of carbon from different places over the world, you can get more. Firstly, it is a great practice of English language, which is the official language of postcrossing. Of course, if you study other languages you can meet some native speakers and practice it too. You can share interesting information with some unknown person, like he is your friend, or just say, how beautiful the weather is today!

It is very easy to start! First, you should register on the web-site postcrossing.com, after request an address, then buy a postcard and stamps at the post office, write down the address and a special ID and put into a sending box. That’s all, now you only wait, when the postcard reaches a receiver. There is a good training of patience, as Russian post isn’t so fast as, for example, German or Japanese. As a newcomer, you can send only five postcards at once, then your limit becomes higher.

The postcrossing project was started by Paulo Magalhães from Portugal as a side project while he was a student more than 6 years ago. These days Paulo’s project has reached the amazing numbers: more than 6 million postcards are sent and received, their total distance is more than 83,848,021,000 km (or 2,092,277 laps around the Earth or 109,062 return trips to the Moon or 280 return trips to the Sun). There are more than 391,276 registered users in 219 different countries. And its population is growing day by day!

Postcrossing makes us feel the part of united global world: that is really world without borders.

UDC 316.422.42

R. Khydarov

Group 3321

Saint-Petersburg State University of Economics

Scientific/Language Advisor: Associate Prof. Olga A. Karabetskaya, Candidate of Pedagogy



International organizations unite people all over the world. However, there are some obstacles that people face when they are trying to collaborate. One of the ways to break down the barrier between states is to arrange internships. I improved my communication skills by going abroad 2 times during six months of my university studies.

The organization that sends me to test myself, to improve my level of management is called AIESEC. What is AIESEC and why do I believe that it’s the new way that can help me and other students to become a good specialist?

First of all, AIESEC is the biggest students’ organization that is based in over 130 countries. As any organization AIESEC has its own goals, one of them is: “Peace and fulfillment of humankind's potential.” So, I visited Moscow and Charkov during that six month as intern. I attended conferences that developed my knowledge as a manager. The experience that I gained in internship was awesome.

To tell you the truth, I have never had so many positive feelings before. I visited a lot of famous places; I heard people’s opinions about various problems, especially about internships. I understand that it is the way of progress. I think that it is the right and the only way to train professionals. You could learn any program, proposed by your university. However, if you want to be an extra class specialist, you must have some internship to achieve high level in your specialization. Therefore, I think that AIESEC is the only suitable option that could be found in Saint-Petersburg. However, the main problem with international exchange programs is the English language level.

I would like to mention this topic, because it is directly related to mobility of our citizens.

According to EF (English First) research, Russia has the last (34) place in population mobility among countries participating in BRIC.

In my opinion, these results are given, because about 79% of Russian citizens have never been abroad. To solve the problem of mobility, the government should seriously think about how to pay for the interns’ tickets. Therefore, it is better to use such programs as Work and Travel and Volunteering for those who lag behind because of their language skills. The role of international organizations is very high in such cases.

When organizations begin to implement various kinds of trips abroad, another obstacle is a question, which concerns the cultural shock.

Culture shock is the personal disorientation a person may feel when experiencing an unfamiliar way of life due to immigration, a visit to a new country or a move between social environment, as well as travel to the area with another lifestyle. Any organization that sends people abroad for internship organises courses to overcome the culture shock.

To sum up, social sector is developing now. A lot of internships programs are hold in India, China and South-East Asia. Many professional interns were sent to the USA, Brazil and Argentina. Today, we can travel anywhere on Earth. The twenty first century is a century without borders.

UDC 81-13

А. Kleschina

Group 701

Saint-Petersburg State University of Economics

Scientific/Language Advisor: Associate Prof. Veronika.V. Tepkeeva, Candidate of Philology


The art of mastering many languages has been known since the earliest times. So, the king of Pontus Mithridates VII Eupator (1st century BC) knew 36 languages besides his native Greek. Giuseppe Mezzofanti (1774-1849), an Italian Cardinal, who spent all his life in Italy never traveling abroad, knew about 50 languages and dialects. Stephen Wurn (1922-2001), the famous Australian linguist of Hungarian origin, spoke at least 48 languages including the Uzbek language and the languages of Papua-New Guinea.

In our modern life, the value of speaking a foreign language can hardly be overestimated. Today this skill is in demand almost everywhere. It is essential for the successful business cooperation and for the comfort communication with foreigners as well. Undoubtedly, for all of us, fluency in a foreign language is one of the major advantages, which provides us with a lot of new opportunities.

Currently, there are a great number of different techniques of learning foreign languages. One of the main methods - Grammar-Translation Method – gained its significant popularity during the 17th –19th centuries, although it is still in use. This method includes studying grammar rules and translating sentences to and from the target language. Initially it was intended for teaching Ancient Greek and Latin, but gradually these dead languages were replaced with modern ones. Currently, it provides passive knowledge of a language.

During the last decades, the method of Communicative Language Teaching is applied widely in Russia. It emphasizes everyday speech and communication in the target language. It provides a foreign language immersion.

Various mnemotechniques, phonetic alphabet, the visual and aural memory training – are supplementary tools for learning a foreign language. Possible disadvantages of mnemotechnique if it is used wrongly. Analysis of "Giordano Memorization System".

Hypnopedia, or sleep-learning, became available in the second part of the 20th century. Although this method proved to be an efficient way to learn a foreign language, it also had serious drawbacks.

The reliability of the traditional, time-proven domestic methods, supported with the modern audio-visual materials seems to improve students' foreign language proficiency.


1. How to learn any languages. [Электронный ресурс]. -


2. Изучение английского языка. [Электронный ресурс]. -


UDC 811.111

N. Kozlova

Group 3121

Saint-Petersburg State University of Economics

Scientific/Language advisor: Associate Prof Olga V. Suslova

XXI century is a century of great discoveries in the field of education. It is recognized that education has always been and remains proportionate to the process of the historical development of human society. Therefore, in defining its objectives and content it is extremely important to consider its highly functional and historical burden. Major functions are implemented in education:

- providing physical survival - human adaptation to the world,

- meeting the wide range of social, cultural, moral needs of the individual and society.

These functions should be involved in the life and career of developing professional.[1]

In the world we have a lot of professions such as business, economy, finance, management, fashion, design etc. In foreign countries people learn for a longer period than in Russia and they are given internships which are very important because they give one experience and skills necessary for their future professions. It is an objective reality.

On the other side, we have subjective reasons of studying abroad: to experience diversity of other cultures and feel independent.

Universities today have many valid reasons to recruit international students and deliver borderless programs abroad as sound educational initiatives in an increasingly interconnected, and culturally diverse global economy. [2]

There is a sense of accomplishment for having the most quality of education because it guarantees a leverage for one’s future welfare. For example, the British universities distinctly watch for the conjuncture of the market, attitudes of employers, actively introducing new specialties.[3] The level of scientific research activities at universities have a vital significance. Obtaining of international education helps you comprehend the intricacies of doing business abroad, make new useful connections. Nowadays it’s the only ideal way to a bright future.

The main purpose is to have a career abroad.

Having a global career is the Main purpose and this goal is now realistic.

It is Absolutely realistic to achieve one’s ambitions today in bachelor’s degree and master’s international parallel training programs and acquire a European degree. If you have two national degrees you will get a high-paying and interesting job both in Russia and in the European Union.[4] According to experts, accountants, market analysts and lawyers most often have two or more degrees of higher education.[5] Every country is in need of good specialists. If a person is ambitious, curious, hard-working this ability opens up all kinds of borders.


1. Козлова Н.В. Личностно-профессиональное становление: психолого-акмеологический подход. – Томск. – Издательство ТПУ. -2007. – 201 с.

2. http://ewb.hct.ac.ae/ewb2013/program/themes/

3. Newspaper «Британское образование. Инвестиции в будущее от компании «Альбион».

4. Newspaper «ЭКОНОМИСТ» №2 February 2013 page 4.

5. Newspaper «METRO» 19.03.2013 page 25.
UDC 316.422.42

G. Matveeva

Group E3111

Saint-Petersburg State University of Economics

Scientific/language advisor: Associate Prof Olga V. Suslova

Integration processes actively proceeding in all spheres of public life are a characteristic feature nowadays. An important trend of Russia’s modern integration is a cancellation of welfare and educational barriers, rapprochement of education systems and striving for the international standards and equivalence of the higher education.

Using experience of the Moscow higher education institutions (MESI, the Moscow State University, MGIMO), it becomes obvious that in long term regional higher education institutions will offer students different types of the international component of education, namely:

• training – the short-term trips abroad including visits to the companies and training;

• exchange programs of various duration;

• opportunity to learn abroad and to gain the master’s diploma of a foreign higher education institution;

• students can get experience or practice in the international and foreign companies that is very useful for career development;

• participation in the international projects.

According to UNESCO, Russia is included into ten countries of the world that send abroad the greatest number of students.

As Alexander Efremov, the RUDN vice rector for studies says, today’s reality shows that times of the closed economy and labor markets passed away. “If graduates of Russian higher education institutions want to be in demand in the conditions of the world competition, they have to be not only excellent professionals, but pass training levels determined by the world community. They have to know foreign languages, information technologies and show to the employer documents recognized around the world”.[1]

Presently there are essentially new technologies which considerably increase the speed of educational process. First of all it concerns programs of remote education at open universities. For example, one of the largest European corporations – National Academy of Remote Formation of “KNED” in France having an extensive experience in distance learning, or Bologna Process covering 47 countries.

Its advantages: expansion of access to the higher education, further improvement of quality and appeal of the European higher education, expansion of students and teachers mobility, and also ensuring successful employment of graduates because all academic degrees and other qualifications have to be focused on the labor market.

The uniform educational space has to allow national education systems to take all the best from their partners – increasing mobility of students, teachers, the administrative personnel, strengthening ties and cooperation between higher education institutions in Europe and the world, etc.; as a result uniform Europe will gain big appeal on world "the educational market".

The today’s expert (student) has an opportunity, if s/he wishes, to be trained in other countries, to have the general knowledge of profile specialty on a global scale.


Электронный ресурс. – режим доступа: http://pda.tr200.biz/
UDC 123.1

K. Naumova

Group 7221

Saint-Petersburg State University of Economics

Scientific/Language Advisor: Associate Prof Olga A. Karabetskaya, Candidate of Pedagogy

A common situation is the marriage where spouses belong to different cultures, in other words a family where the spouses` religion and an attitude to the events that take place in the country can be different. International Marriages are the examples of the world’s biggest social trends. That is a mixture of races in the family. Some acts which prohibited marriage between persons of different races have become invalid now as contrary to the Constitution. So, International marriages are common for Europe and Asia. About one in five marriages in Sweden, Belgium and Austria involves foreign partners. In Spain and Italy, cross-border marriages are accounted for 22% and 14% respectively. Cyprus is a special case: no less than three-quarters of marriages are international.

Every marriage requires patience, dedication and hard work. An international marriage requires even more attention because there are a lot of different problems that a couple faces.

Some of them include:

Rights and obligations in the family;

Differences in Values;

Language Barrier;

Religious Conflicts;

Intimate Relationships;

Economic Aspects;


These differences are more visible in method of upbringing than anywhere, when a child is born. Definitely, it’s hard for a child to understand and study several cultures at once. Exactly, it leads to conflicts and a collapse of the family.

To overcome these barriers, intercultural couples need to:

Learn more about each other's culture and traditions;

Speak freely;

Understand that cultural roots go deep and that people don't change easily or quickly;

Focus on the positives results;

Look at what you have in common with one another;

Discuss your preference in the areas of mealtimes, holidays and celebrations.

But there are a lot of positive aspects. Young women, often from poor areas of China and Vietnam, are looking for economic opportunities. Marriage with a man from a richer country is seen as a mean of advancement and a way of helping their families at home. Many Asian men also seem to be looking for wives abroad in the hope that immigrant women will bear them more children. This indeed happens in Europe and America. So at first, migration increases the birth rate. Moreover, nowadays there are a lot of various web-sites which offer the wide range of effective and modern ways to look for the partner.

Eventually, the key of successful intercultural marriage is to develop understanding and patience.

UDC 330

Е. Nikolaeva

Group Э1321

Saint-Petersburg State University of Economics

Scientific/Language Advisor: Seniour Lecturer Olga V. Abramova

Social values of young people are a reflection of contemporary social development. Social Advertising performs the function of shaping the world of the individual. Social advertising does not advertise some product, but it shows us how to establish a relationship with the world around us. The main source of social advertising is our social life. It replicates real life situations of conflicts and confrontations.

The goal of social advertising is to draw public attention to this or that social issue, usually the one which is really acute today. Most often, social advertising points at certain social phenomena.

Being a part of popular culture aimed primarily at young people, advertising has a particularly strong impact on this group of society, perceiving this form of culture as a textbook of life. Advertising is accepted by today's youth as a normative element of culture in the context of acquiring the value of familiar elements of the environment. From this point of view, it is interpreted as a natural part of their culture. Young people are really vulnerable to all the process that take place in the modern society. This is the least protected group, with a low immunity level in the popular culture. So advertising can be a means of education of young people in our modern society, because it introduces a valuable and secure source of information for them.

From the above mentioned, one can say /that social advertising is an important tool of teaching social and economic problems in the field of information and moral basis of the society, in faith and spiritual and patriotic education; in the field of ecology and legal education and etc.


Электронный рес. – Режим доступа:


UDC 339.92

D. Permyakova

Group 1321

Saint-Petersburg State University of Economics

Scientific/Language Advisor: Seniour Lecturer Olga V. Abramova

The world economist is one of those professions that reflects the time and values of the modern life, its trends and future horizons. It is one of the most demanded professions nowadays. As a rule, world economists are strong professionals in management, marketing, finances.

On the other hand, the profession of a world economist is connected with some challenges. So, these questions are to be pondered upon.

Young professionals often have difficulties to find work. Employers are very skeptical because young economists don’t have any work experience. So the question is acute, where students should or can get the experience…

World economists must know all aspects of the world economy, understand political, social, and cultural contexts of world development. They need to be informed in all aspects of the society, and that requires a lot of energy and time.

Talking about the time, it should be noticed that the profession of a world economist doesn’t let anyone relax. It gives a huge amount of opportunities, but at the same time, world economists have to sacrify their private time and life as well.

This profession is very stressful. A world economist should be prepared for different force majeure situations every time and everywhere.

Alongside with other things, to be competitive on the labor market, you should have many personal qualities such as confidence, communication skills, self-control, determination and a little stubbornness. It sounds simple enough, but it is not easy to develop.

For sure there is a long list of tips of how to stay afloat in the river of life. Some of them are worth considering.

So, now some tips for the young world economists:
- learn languages. It will give you a competitive;
- do not miss the training opportunities. Any experience will be to your best;
- develop your personality and be always confident in yourself.

  1. ПрофГид [Электронный ресурс]-http://www.profguide.ru/professions/economist-mezhdunarodnik.html

2. The Economist [Электронный ресурс] - http://www.economist.com/node/18184554

UDC 339.92

А. Petrova

Group 1321

Saint-Petersburg State University of Economics

Scientific/Language Advisor: Seniour Lecturer Olga V. Abramova

Though participation of women in the corporate world is becoming more and more habitual, all of them are still facing a set of difficulties. And these difficulties are connected, first of all, with gender inequality or with gender stereotypes to be exact.

Gender stereotypes are historically developed judgments about women and men. For example, the woman is a keeper of the home, the man is a getter, women are a weaker sex, and men are stronger. And nowadays we can hear more and more that a man is more talented in business, so he has got all the appropriate qualities for that.

An employer, looking for a new employee, will treat and consider male candidates preferably. So the career of a woman is very often strongly damaged by such widely spread truths like men are stronger, smarter and more communicative.

Today in the modern society we can see examples that prove quite opposite things. There is a string of female top lieutenants in industrial giants, in politics and other cases.

So who knows, maybe all gender stereotypes will be forgotten soon, and nothing will stir smart and capable young women on their path to a successful career.

1. Статья “Why I Learned to Love Being a Woman in Business”. [Электронный ресурс] – Электронные дан. – Режим доступа: http://www.forbes.com/sites/yec/2012/05/15/why-i-learned-to-love-being-a-woman-in-business

2. Статья "Gender Issues in International Business". [Электронный ресурс] – Электронные дан. – Режим доступа: http://muellerr.people.cofc.edu/gender.htm?referrer=webcluster

UDC 811.111.8

K. Povalyaeva

Group 3321

Saint-Petersburg State University of Economics

Scientific/Language Advisor: Associate Prof Olga A. Karabetskaya, Candidate of Pedagogy

There are about 7 billion people around the world, 262 countries and more than 7000 languages, including different dialects and specific pronunciation of each one and only one question has been asked for thousand years: ‘How can people of various cultures and nationalities understand each other by using a huge amount of manifold languages?’. The easiest answer is to use pidgins.

Scientists have discussed the concept of mixed-language as a very strange phenomenon in linguistics for a long time but these ‘new’ languages are the reality of contemporary world despite everything. They are developed as a mean of communication between different cultural groups that do not share the same language. The first extant pidgin language was the lingua franca, which was used in the Middle Ages in the Eastern Mediterranean in trade contacts between Europeans (who were called Franks) and a population of Levant. Today we have nearly 50 pidgins, for example, Spanglish, Chinglish, Franglish, Danglish, Runglish, Surzhik (Ukrainian and Russian), Trasyanka (Belarusian and Russian), etc.

When you use such languages you do not need to pay special attention to grammar or structure of the sentence, phrases are usually radically simplified and vocabulary is reduced. For instance, here is a small joke about Runglish speakers: in the center of London one man turns to another:

- Excuse me, which watch?

- Six watch.

- Such much?

- To whom how…

- MGIMO finished?

- Ask!…

In this case the direct translation from Russian language is used to make the joke funny but it’s absolutely inappropriate for English grammar. However, pidgin languages have well-defined phonological systems which can be written in scientific transcription or in spelling, applicable to different languages.

The pidgin languages which have already been granted the status of official language and which are spread over quite large areas are called Creole. The total number of speakers of Creole languages is estimated at about 30 million people. Most Creole languages emerged from the development of pidgins based on Western European languages, but there are also a number of non-European-based pidgins. Today there are more than 60 Creole languages which are widely represented throughout the world. The main characteristics of Creole language are simplified grammar, phonetics and spelling, and the complete domination of analytical approach.

In the twenty first century there are many different ways of communication, such as the Internet or a mail but people from diverse language groups still need a language to intercommunicate. Why cannot we use pidgin and Creole for this purpose? Of course, the spread of such languages leads to the development of globalization and the loss of some important aspects of other languages but it will help us to extend our potential and capabilities.

UDC 123.1

A. Prokofieva

Group 3111

Saint-Petersburg State University of Economics

Scientific/Language advisor: Associate Prof Olga V. Suslova

Doctors without borders, Lawyers without borders, Engineers without borders, MBAs without borders – how many of “What” without borders?

The modern educational system is at a transition stage. Many researchers [1] state even its deep crisis which is expressed in conservatism of traditional education systems, a lag from demands of the modern life, a going deep gap between prompt development of social life and the content of education, too slow adaptation to changing social conditions, falling of efficiency of traditional educational practice, discrepancy of expenses and educational result received.

Thus, it is necessary to revise the content of education: it has to include not only the latest scientific and technical information, but also humanitarian personally developing knowledge and abilities, experience of the creative activity, the created emotional and valuable relation to the world and the individual in it.

The content of higher education based on updating its humanitarian component can be treated rather widely. A strategy of social movement which can slow down or promote development of both an individual and the whole civilization results from the solution of the tasks following from this treatment. It assumes implementation of an essentially new orientation of education which changes habitual idea of its purpose as forming “the systematic knowledge and skills” developed when schools didn’t put the main objective transferring values of universal and national culture.[1]

On November 28 in Kiev a national educational project “The World without Borders” started. 16 trainees from different countries carried out trainings for students and seniors. The organizer of the project for the ninth time is the international youth organization AIESEC.

The project is held with the support of international companies indifferent to youth development. Natalia Telenkova, the Head of Committee of corporate responsibility of Ernst & Young noted: “In modern world young people face more and more challenges. At the same time, opportunities for development are considerably widening: traditional education is supplemented with a boundless information resource – the Internet, and interesting developing and social initiatives, like the AIESEC projects can diversify out-of-class training. For those who aren’t lazy to use opportunities, who is able to see the aim and to distribute the time between study and entertainments – chances of success are very high”.[2]



UDC 123.1

A. Samar

Group 5523

Saint-Petersburg State University of Economics

Scientific/Language Advisor: Associate Prof Olga A. Karabetskaya, Candidate of Pedagogy

It becomes very popular to study abroad. More and more students are trying to find a university in another country. For example, my best friend studies in Holland and another friend prefers Switzerland.

There are some key features which you need to know about studying abroad. First of all, you have to speak the language of the country where you go or you have to know English at a good level (upper-intermediate or advanced). Your knowledge should be verified by an international exam (IELTS, TOEFL, etc.). Secondly, your average academic score must be at least 4.0 (in some universities and colleges it could be higher). Thirdly, you should get in touch with the organizers and understand what direction you want to go. You should know the curriculum, internship opportunity and diversity practices.

Not all courses are paid. If you have no chance to study and pay for the university courses, you should win a grant for the education. This is not too hard, but you need to have good marks at school (4.0). In addition, you can have some diplomas and letters, which confirm your active training activities. If the organizers are satisfied by results, you are bound for a conference on Skype. If you passed the test, it’s necessary to deal with the documents and then you can pack your luggage. Sometimes you have to pass some tests, but it is not always necessary.

As a rule, education school year starts at the end of August or at the beginning of September. It usually starts with the Introduction Week. After that you begin your studying.

Most students live in the dorm, but some of them move into apartments. Logistical support and campuses infrastructure are usually at the highest level. They offer students excellent library, Internet, laboratories equipped with the latest gadgets and technology.

If you doubt about particular country, you can focus on the United States. It’s considered to be suitable for foreign students.

The terminology of the education system in the U.S. (higher education):

Undergraduate Level (Associate Degree or Bachelor's Degree).

Graduate Level (Master's Degree or Advanced Professional Degree).

Postgraduate (Postdoctoral) Level.

Colleges and universities in the U.S. are almost the same. The difference is that universities are bigger than colleges.

You have a chance to work in the U.S. for 12 months after graduation. Therefore, American education is valued all over the world.

Education abroad is a real opportunity to see and to discover the world, to meet new people and get a good education.

UDC 339.5

М. Sobol

Group 1321

Saint-Petersburg State University of Economics

Scientific/Language Advisor: Seniour Lecturer Olga V. Abramova

International marketing is a market management concept of the international activities of the company, focused on the needs of end users in different countries and the formation of their preferences in line with the strategic objectives of optimizing and expanding business in the global worldwide [1].

With the beginning of the new millennium and development of technologies and scientific achievements of civilization, cultural, political, social and economic relations have reached a new level. As we know, thanks to digital technologies in the modern world each country and each person is able to afford to erase geographical boundaries and to join the international process of integration and globalization. National economies have got the international level too. So everyone tries to maximize profit and to satisfy the needs of the society. The international marketing is the instrument of interaction of the person, the market and society in the modern world. International marketing can find customers anywhere in the world with an international advertising, public relations moves, pricing and exhibitions.

However the following questions are to be considered.

1) What advantages will there be in the real sector of national economy and multinational corporations as a result economic integration, globalization and successful action in the world markets?

Really, the real sector of any national economy will receive both pluses, and minuses from an exit to world level. For example Russia's accession to the World Trade Organization has given ground to a lot of debates. The question of multinationals, their role in the world economy and their markets is also acute.

2) How will a consumer profit from international marketing?

The prize for the consumer is the following. A modern consumer will be able to stay afloat on a commodity and services market. The variety of goods and services thanks to the international marketing will allow people to avoid deficiency image of 80s-90s in the USSR.

3) How can young specialists in the field of the international marketing be effective in their job?

Competent young specialists having experience in development of marketing strategy and foreign languages will be able to apply their knowledge effectively by different means. It will help an expert to operate a situation in the market in all spheres of production and consumption.

Thus, the international marketing plays an important role in the development of economic relations and has a huge impact on formation of the identity of a successful expert who can be in demand both in our country and abroad.


  1. Ноздрева Р.Б. Международный маркетинг. М.: Экономистъ, 2005.

  2. Risk in mobility is a business risk [Электронный ресурс] – Электронные дан. – Режим доступа: http://www.ft.com/home/europe

UDC 339.92

V. Yun

Group M5523

Saint-Petersburg State University of Economics

Scientific/Language Advisor: Seniour Lecturer Olga V. Abramova

There are various styles of management in world practice. Each of them is unique and different countries choose the style suitable for them. Every country chooses a management style based on their culture. In this connection the American and Japanese style of management are considered, because they are widely used around the world.

Management in all business and organizational activities is the act of getting people together to accomplish desired goals and objectives using available resources efficiently and effectively.

Japan is the country of developing innovations. Today the Japanese management style is considered to be one of the most effective in the world, thanks to policy of a collectivism which Japanese direct managers adhere.

The main features of the Japanese management

1) Manager has to be an expert in all spheres of activity of the company

2) Every 3-5 years there is a massive retraining of staff.

3) The great value in Japanese firms is given to scientific and technical progress.

4) Pride of the country, care of the people is a priority task in activity of the Japanese companies.

The United States of America has a wealth of management experience. American managers have always been a showcase model. Briefly the essence of the American model of management can be summed up in one word – “individualism”.

The founder of scientific management is Frederick Winslow Taylor (03/20/1856 - 21/03/1915).

 Modern American management is based on three historical preconditions:

1 . Market existence.

2 . Industrial way of the organization of production.

3 . Corporation as the main form of business.

Japanese style of management aims to ensure staff stability. Thus embodies the spirit of "partnership" ("family"), as opposed to the American style, which embodies the spirit of "associations" typical American practice encourages individualism, dynamism and competition, which often leads to the aggravation of the contradictions between the employees.


  1. Грейсон Д., О’Делл К. Американский менеджмент на пороге XXI века. М.: Экономика, 1991.

  2. Шонбергер Р. Японские методы управления производством. М.: Экономика, 1988.

UDC 811.111-26

O. Zazdravnyh

Group 721

Saint-Petersburg State University of Economics

Scientific/Language Advisor: Associate Prof. Veronika.V. Tepkeeva, Candidate of Philology


Nowadays we can hear a lot about the importance of learning English in modern life. English is a language of international communication. Due to English we are able to maintain communication with the representatives of different countries without any misunderstanding, to learn the culture of other countries directly, start business in a foreign city, contact with the equipment which is mostly in English, and just be aware of all the events that go beyond the boundaries. What can we know from studying this language as individuals? In this article I would like to pay more attention to how English influences the personality.

Personality is a stable system of socially significant features characterizing the individual as a member of a society or community. If we speak about a man as a person, we must pay attention to his behavior, social status, character traits and a strong personality. Learning a language leads to the development of horizons and outlook, which gives the experience to get out of the difficult situation. English expands our vocabulary, it seems that it moves the borders of our vocabulary, so we can express our thoughts, we can speak beautifully and correctly that is an integral part of the personality in my opinion. Thus, studying English we improve our own language.

Everyone has life goals. Mostly these goals are related to self-realization, self-development and a successful future. Foreign language skills ensure a better chance to achieve these goals. Knowledge of the language also gives us the opportunity to read a lot of masterpieces of famous writers in the original. If you know English, you are more confident, you feel sufficiently educated.

In conclusion I would like to mention that nowadays the trend of language learning is gaining momentum. English has become fashionable. Parents try to enroll their children in the course from early childhood, because they are aware of the great need for this. There are fewer and fewer people, who cannot speak English. Famous actor Philippe Bouvard told about the importance of language this way: "When you travel without knowing English you begin to understand what it means to be born deaf and feeble-minded"

ПРЕДИСЛОВИЕ Error: Reference source not found


И КУЛЬТУРОЛОГИИ ……………………………………………………………………..4

Дергачёва О.С.


Деркач Д.


Дранкова М. А.

ФИЛОСОФИЯ КОСМИЗМА………………………………………………………………..6

Дубок В.С., Кадирова Р.Р.


Егорова Н.В.

ЙОГА И ЗДОРОВЬЕ…………………………………………………………………………8

Иванова К.В.


Иванова К.С.


Иерусалимова А.Н.

СРАВНЕНИЕ ЭЛЕЙСКОЙ И МИЛЕТСКОЙ ШКОЛ.........................................................11

Королева Е.А.

ПОНЯТИЕ «ДОЛГ» В КУЛЬТУРЕ………………………………………………………...12

Кузичева А.Е.


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Сабанов М.Т.

МЫСЛЮ, СЛЕДОВАТЕЛЬНО, СУЩЕСТВУЮ?...............................................................16

Салфетникова В.А.


Скворцова И.Н..

ИДЕИ КОНФУЦИАНСТВА - АКТУАЛЬНЫ ЛИ ОНИ СЕЙЧАС?..................................18

Снопко Д.Г.


Степочкина М.Д.


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(ПО КИНОФИЛЬМУ «ЛЕГЕНДА О ПИАНИСТЕ»)..........................................................22


Ильин В.В.


РОЛЬ В ОБЕСПЕЧЕНИИ ЭФФЕКТИВНОСТИ ИНВЕСТИЦИОННОЙ ДЕЯТЕЛЬНОСТИ ПРЕДПРИЯТИЯ....................................................................................24

Камилов Ф. А.


В САНКТ-ПЕТЕРБУРГЕ......................................................................................................26

Кожушко Е.В.

КОРРУПЦИЯ КАК СОЦИАЛЬНАЯ ДЕВИАЦИЯ............................................................27

Лоцманов А. А.


Серезитинова Д.Ю.

Разработка концепции социально-ответственного

маркетинга в управлении предприятиями табачной отрасли…..…29

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