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Задания и ответы на вопросы выполняются в тонкой ученической тетради. На обложке тетради указываются фамилия, имя, отчество студента, № группы




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Задания и ответы на вопросы выполняются в тонкой ученической тетради. На обложке тетради указываются фамилия, имя, отчество студента, № группы.

APROMINENTRUSSIANSCIENTISTI. M. SECHENOV

I. M. Sechenov(1829—1905) was a prominent Russian scientist, the founder of Russian physiology and scientific psychology. He wrote 106 scientific works.

Some of his research works were connected with the in­vestigation of the blood gases and their role in the respirato­ry process. I. M. Sechenov came to the conclusion that he­moglobin was the substance of the blood which accomplished the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the respirato­ry process. I. M. Sechenov investigated as well the process of absorption of carbon dioxide by the solutions of salts and some other processes.

Notes


  1. respiratory process — дыхательный процесс

  2. toaccomplish— совершать, выполнять, завершать

  3. carbon dioxide — углекислота

  4. absorption— абсорбция.

Ответьте на вопросы к тексту:

1) Was I. M. Sechenov a prominent Russian scientist, the founder of Russian physiology and scientific psychology?

2)When was I. M. Sechenov born?


  1. How many scientific works did he write? '

  1. What was the conclusion of I. M. Sechenov about he­moglobin?

  1. What process did I. M. Sechenov investigate as well?

Найдите в тексте эквиваленты следующих русских слов и выражений:

основатель русской физиологии, быть связанным с чем-либо, исследование газов крови, роль дыхательно­го процесса, выполнять обмен кислорода и углекисло­ты, абсорбция (поглощение) углекислого газа раствора­ми солей.



Прочитайтеипереведитетекст.

HEALTH SERVICE IN RUSSIA

The main attention of health service in Russia is paid to prophylaxis. One of the most important task in the fight against different diseases is the early detection of the first signs of the disease. We pay much attention to the popularization of medical science among the population. We believe that one of the main available methods of preventing the spread of diseases is health education. The press, cinema, radio and television are very helpful for this purpose.

The basic medical unit in our country is the polyclinic. We have polyclinics for the adult population and for children. Ambulant patients are seen at the policlinic by the district doctors. A patient who is ill at home is visited by his districtdoctor. The doctor works 6 hours a day. For the district doc­tor this is made up of 3 hours in consultation at the policlin­ic and 3 hours in visiting patients in their homes.

The emergency ambulance service operates day and night and is free of charge. The ambulances are equipped by diag­nostic, respiratory, anaesthetic and electro-therapeutic appa­ratus, blood-transfusion and other equipment.

There are several specialised hospitals in Russia for the treatment of particular diseases.— infections, psychiatric dis­eases, cancer, ophthalmological diseases and others.

Some words must be said about the Mother-and-Child Health Care Centre in Moscow. This centre concentrates ef­fort not only on traditional problems of obstetrics and gyne­cology but also on research in normal physiology of the fe­male organism. The main task of this centre is to ensure the birth of a healthy child. The centre developed new methods of disease prevention, diagnostics and treatment. Much at­tention in our country is paid to the scientific problems, con­cerning the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular, vi­ral and oncological diseases, the problems of gerontology, medical genetics, immunology and the creation of artificial organs.

Notes


  1. to pay attention — обратить внимание

  1. thespreadofdiseases — распространение заболева­ний .

  2. emergency ambulance service — службаскоройпо­мощи

4) freeofcharge — бесплатно

  1. to be equipped — быть оборудованным

  2. respiratoryapparatus — аппаратура для дыхания

7) blood-transfusion — переливание крови


  1. to ensure — обеспечивать, гарантировать

  2. viral — вирусный




  1. artificial organs— искусственные органы

  2. creation— создание.

Ответьте на вопросы к тексту:

  1. What is the main attention of health service in Russia paid to?

  2. What is one of the most important tasks in the fight against different diseases?

  3. What is helpful in health education?

  4. Is the polyclinic the basic medical unit in our coun­try?

  5. How many hours does the doctor work?

  6. Is the emergency ambulance service free of charge?

  7. What can you say about the equipment of the emer­gency ambulance service?

  8. Are there many specialised hospitals in Russia?

  9. What are the problems, studied by the Mother-and-Child Health Care Centre in Moscow?

10) Is much attention in our country paid to the scientific problems? '

Прочитайте и переведите текст. Задайтевопросыктексту.
HEALTHSERVICEINENGLAND

The National Health Service in England was inaugurated on July 5, 1948 by the Minister for Health under the National Health Service Act of 1946.

The number of doctors in England is not quite enough to serve millions of patients treated at the National Health Ser­vice. Nurses are also in short supply.

All doctors may take part in the Family Doctor System. They may have private practice receiving the pay directly from the patients for their medical advice. Health Service doctors are paid by the government. The pay depends on the number of patients they have served every month. The hos­pital service includes general and special hospitals, tubercu­losis sanatoria, infectious disease units and all forms of spe­cialized treatment together with the provision of most surgical and medical needs.

In the main this part of the service is organized by 15 Regional Hospital Boards. In each hospital area there is a University having a teaching hospital or a medical school.

Notes


  1. tobeinaugurated— быть торжественно открытым, быть введенным

  2. RegionalHospitalBoard— областной больничный совет


Найдите эквиваленты русских слов и выражений в тексте:

  1. быть торжественно открытым, быть недостаточным, частная практика, оплата зависит от ..., общие больни­цы, специальные больницы, хирургические нужды, в основном.

  2. Прочтитеипереведитетекст.


MEDICAL SERVICE IN THE USA

In the USA there are three levels of organization of med­ical service: the private doctor, the medical institution or hospital and the United State Public Health Service.

The average American has a doctor of his own, whom he calls his "family doctor". This doctor gives the patient regu­lar examinations, vaccinations and medical advice. This doc­tor receives pay directly from the patient.

But some Americans with low income have no family doc­tor. They come directly to,the hospital for all their medical needs. Here they are cared for by interns, residents (врачи, живущиеприбольнице) and the doctors who work there.

The considerable cost of medical care has led to the de­velopment of two new programmes by the Federal Govern­ment — Medicare and Medicaid. Medicare provides free medical care for all the Americans over 65. Medicaid pro­vides free medical care for all those whose income is below a certain level.

SMOKING

Выучите слова, прочитайте текст


  1. urban — городской

  2. underweight— недоношенный

  3. amazing удивительный, поразительный

  4. despite — несмотря на

  5. regarding— относительно, о, об

  6. hazard— риск, опасность

  7. unwise— глупый, неблагоразумный

  8. sneeze— чихать

Many young urban girls today smoke. While smoking is bad for your health at any time, it is particularly so during pregnancy and may result in an underweight, small-size baby, and so smoking is best avoided during pregnancy.' It is amazing how people persist in smoking despite so much warning regarding its hazards.

It is unwise to hold a lighted cigarette while holding the baby. Smoke may also irritate baby and make him cough and sneeze.



Упражнение 1. Скажите по-английски:

для вашего здоровья, особенно, исключить, во врeмя беременности, удивительно, несмотря на, глупо, го­рящая сигарета, раздражать, кашлять.



Упражнение 2. Ответьте на вопросы к тексту.

  1. Smoke is harmful to your health, isn't it?

  2. Is smoking bad for a pregnant woman?

  3. Is it dangerous to hold a lighted cigarette while holding the baby?


Прочитайтеипереведитетекст, пользуясьсловарем.

HYPERTENSION

Hypertension is defined as a sustained elevation of arteri­al blood pressure at a level of 140/90 or higher in persons between the ages of 13—50 and 160/95 or higher in persons over 50 years of age. Hypertension is classified as primary essential or idiopathic) or secondary. Primary hypertension, which constitutes approximately 90 % of the cases, has an unknown etiology. Secondary hypertension occurs as a result of other pathological conditions such a Cushing's syndrome, increased intracranial pressure, renal disease, pheochromocytoma, and coarctation of the aorta. Hypertansion is classi­fied according to the degree of severity, ranging from Class I (mild hypertension with a diastolic pressure between 90—104 mm Hg) to Class III (severe hypertension with a diastolicpressureabove 115 mmHg). Accelerated or malignant hy­pertension is characterized by a sudden and rapid rise of diastolic pressure above 120 mm Hg and concurrent Grade III— IV retinopathy. When the pressure elevation causes an immediate threat to the client's life, hypertensive crisis exists.



Упражнение 1. Ответьте на вопросы к тексту:

  1. "What is primary hypertension?

  2. What is secondary hypertension?

  3. When does hypertensive crisis exist?

Упражнение 2. Найдите в тексте английские эквива­ленты следующих русских слов и словосочетаний: кровяное давление, уровень, первичная гипертония, вторичная ги­пертония, синдром Кушинга, неизвестная этиология, ги­пертонический криз.
WORK OF THE HUMAN HEART

The human heart contracts from the first moment of life until the last one. The contractions of the heart pump the blood through the arteries to all the parts of the body. Phys­iologists have determined that in the adult the heart makes from 60 to 72 beats per minute. In children the rate of heart beat is much higher. Research work has determined that rate of heart beat increases depending on different emotions.

Each beat of the heart is followed by a period of rest. Each contraction and a period of rest compose a cardiac cycle.

Each cardiac cycle consists of three phases: the first phase of short contraction — the atrial systole, the second phase ofa more prolonged contraction — the ventricular systole. The period of rest is called the diastole.

Research work of many physiologists has estimated the role of the ventricles as the main pump of the human heart.

Упражнение. Переведитеследующиепредложения:

1. The human heart makes 60—80 contractions per

minute.


  1. On physical exertion the heart has a short period of rest and the diastole becomes less.

  2. Ten tons of blood are pumped through the heart daily.

  3. The heart acts as a pump.

  4. John Floyer, an English doctor, was the first scientist to find out the varying pulse rate in men.

Упражнение. Найдите в тексте эквиваленты следую­щих русских слов и выражений:

человеческое сердце, сокращаться, сокращения сер­дца, артерия, взрослый человек, 72 удара в минуту, оп­ределить частоту сердцебиения, зависит от различных эмоций, сердечный цикл, систола предсердия, систола желудочка, диастола, насос.



Выучите следующие слова и словосочетания:

  1. pump- насос, vнакачивать, нагнетать, выталкивать, выбрасывать

  2. rate- nчастота, степень

  3. pulserate— частота пульса

  4. respiratoryrate— частота дыхания

  5. beat -ударять(beat, beaten)

  1. per minute — в минуту

  2. contract - сокращаться

  3. artery -артерия

  4. systole - систола

  5. diastole -диастола

9) atrium-(pi. atria) предсердие
10) ventricle- желудочек

HEARTDISEASE

Выучите слова, прочитайте текст

  1. disorder - расстройство, нездоровье

  2. congenital - врожденный

  3. acquired - приобретенный

  4. club-like - зд. похожие на барабанные палочки

  5. pulmonary - лёгочный

  6. to depend on - зависетьот




  1. topickup - уловить, обнаружить

  2. puffiness - одутловатость

Heart disorders fall into two broad groups: congenital and acquired. Congenital heart defects are caused by structural defects. Acquired heart- disease is mainly due to rheumatic

fever.


Congenital defects may result in cyanosis if the defect is such that blood does not pass through the lungs for oxygen­ation. The patient has blue lips and blue-finger and toe-nails. The ends of the fingers and toes are rounded and club-like.

Sometimes there is an opening between the left and right side of the heart, or even between the aorta and pulmonary artery.

Symptoms depend on the type of heart disease. Some­times,, the defect is picked up on a routine examination; at other times there may be breathlessness, difficulty in walk­ing or running, swelling of feet and puffiness of face, and later of the whole body. Some these anomalies can be surgically corrected.

Упражнение1. Переведитенаанглийскийязык.

врожденный, приобретенный, дефекты (пороки) сер­дца, структурные дефекты, врожденные пороки сердца, у больного посиневшие губы, пальцы на руках и ногах — закругленные, похожи на барабанные палочки, отвер­стие, легочная артерия.



Упражнение 2. Ответьте на вопросы к тексту.

  1. What kind of groups do the heart disorders fall?

  2. What are the symptoms of some congenital heart de­fects?

  3. Can these anomalies be surgically corrected?

FIRSTAID

Выучите слова, прочитайте текст.

  1. first aid - перваяпомощь

  2. knowledge - знание

  3. essential - неотъемлемый

  1. emergency - непредвиденный случай

  2. to lose - терять

  3. calm - спокойный

  4. injured - пострадавший

  5. tohurt - причинить боль

  6. braise - ушиб, синяк




  1. fracture - перелом

  2. limb - конечность

Some knowledge of first aid is essential for everyone and should be an essential part of teaching at the medical college. The most important thing in an emergency is not to lose one's head. When you give the first aid you must be very calm. If the injured person has hurt himself with a fall, make him lie down comfortably and see whether there are any cuts or bruises. If movement of arm or leg hurts, there may be fracture, so leave the limb in the position in which it is.

Упражнение 1. Переведите на английский язык: знание, первая помощь, для каждого, неотъемлемая

часть, терять голову, пострадавший, движение руки или



ноги, может быть перелом.

Упражнение 2. Ответьте на вопросы к тексту:

  1. What is the most important thing in an emergency?

  2. How must a person act when he gives the first aid?

  3. Do you know how to give the first aid?

BLEEDING

Выучите слова, прочитайте текст.

  1. bleeding - кровотечение

  2. severe - тяжелый

  3. loss [los] - потеря

  4. case [keis] - n случай

  5. blood transfusion - переливаниекрови

Bleeding can lead to a severe loss of blood. The best way to stop bleeding is by direct pressure with a clean cloth. If the bleeding is from the arm or the leg, the limb can be kept in a raised position. If the bleeding is from a nose, put a cold com­press on the nose. It will stop the blood. Ice placed on the nose also stops bleeding. Inseverecasedoctorsmakebloodtransfusion.

Упражнение 1. Переведите на английский язык: лучший способ остановить кровотечение, потеря крови, чистая ткань, поднятое положение, кровотечение из носа, холодный компресс, остановить кровотечение, тяжелый случай, переливание крови.

Упражнение 2. Ответьте на вопросы к тексту:

  1. What can lead to a severe loss of blood?

  2. What is the best way to stop the bleeding?

  3. What do the doctors do in severe cases?

FRACTURE

Выучите слова, прочитайте текст.

  1. fracture - перелом

  2. to break - ломать, перелом

  3. bone [boun] n - кость

  4. pain - боль

  5. swelling - опухоль

6..tenderness - мягкость

  1. to confirm - подтверждать

  2. to immobilize - делать неподвижным

  3. splint - шина




  1. stiff - жесткий

  2. limb - конечность

  3. joint - сустав

  4. to bind - привязывать

  5. above - наверху

  6. below - ниже

  7. compound - сложный

  8. sterile - стерильный

  9. gauze - марля

  10. topierce- пронзать, протыкать, прокалывать

Fracture or break in the bone can result from any injury. There is a pain, swelling and tenderness and there may be a deformity. The injured part should be prevented from mov­ing. Usually, an X-ray is necessary to confirm whether there is a fracture or not. The injured part can be immobilized with a splint. A splint can be ready-made or improvized from any stiff material (stick, ruler, magazine and so on). The splintshould be wider than the limb being splinted, and long enough to prevent movements of the joints near the fracture. Bind the splint in place above and below the fracture. If the person has a compound fracture you must take some sterile gauze, put it over the wound and take the patient to the hos­pital immediately. A compound fracture is more serious, in which broken bone has pierced the skin.

Упражнение 1. Переведите на английский язык.

может быть деформация, пострадавшая (поврежден­ная) часть, необходим рентген, подтвердить перелом, готовая шина, шире, чем конечность, предотвратить движения суставов, привязывать шину, взять стериль­ную марлю, сложный перелом, более серьезный, поло­манная кость, пронзить кожу.



Упражнение 2. Ответьте на вопросы к тексту

  1. What are the symptoms of the fracture?

  2. Is it necessary to use X-ray?

  3. What kind of splints are used for immobilization?

  4. What fractures are more serious?

Прочитайте и воспроизведите диалог в лицах.

AT THE DOCTOR'S

Patient: I haven't been feeling well, doctor.

Doctor: What's wrong with you?

Patient: I've had pain here — just bellow my heart.

Doctor: Do you have these pains all the time?

Patient: No, not all the time. They usually come aftermeals.

Doctor: After meals? Do you eat much?

Patient: Well, I'm very fond of food.

Doctor: That's the reason why you have these pains nearthe heart. You'd better eat not so much. What'syour weight?

Patient: About 85 kilograms, I think.

Doctor: Try to get your weight down. Not so much bread,no sugar, no butter, доcake.

Patient: Well, I'll try, but it is not so easy.



THE PATIENTS NEED YOUR HELP

The whole life of a nurse is devoted to people. She is re­sponsible for her patient. Every nurse must have enoughknowledge of her work. She must help her patients at any


hour of the day or night. That's why you should know howto help a person in different situations. ;

Situation 1.If you help a person who lost his consciousness:

  1. Lay the person flat on the back.

  2. Raise his feet a little.

  3. Loose his dress.

  4. Cover him warmly and open the window.

  5. Sprinkle cold water on his face.

6) Give the person to breathe in ammonia water. ,

Situation 2.If you help a person who is in shock:

  1. Lay him flat on his back.

  2. Raise his feet a little.

  3. Cover him with blankets to keep him warm.

  4. Give him a warm drink.

  5. Keep him quiet.

Situation 3.If you help a person with poisoning:

  1. Empty his stomach as soon as possible.

  2. Give him much water to drink.

  3. Call in a doctor immediately.

Situation 4.If you help a person who has a sunstroke:

  1. Take the patient into a cool and shady place.

  2. Put him on his back.

  3. Raise his head and shoulders a little.

  4. Put cold cloth on his head.

  5. Cool his body with cold water.

  6. Rub his skin with a sponge to keep up blood circulation.

Notes

  1. to lose consciousness - терятьсознание

  2. to lay - положить

  3. flat - плоско

  4. to loose [lu:s] - ослабить, расстегнуть

  5. to cover - покрывать

  6. to sprinkle - брызгать

  7. ammonia water - нашатырный спирт

  8. blanket -одеяло

9) tokeephimquiet -(здесь) не тревожить его

  1. to empty - опорожнять

  2. as soon as possible — какможнобыстрее

  3. stomach - желудок

  4. to call in - вызвать (врача)

  5. immediately- немедленно, тотчас же

  6. sunstroke - солнечный удар

  7. tocool - охлаждать, (здесь) прохладный

  8. shady - тенистое

  9. sponge - губка

  10. to keep up — поддерживать

  11. blood circulation - кровообращение

Скажите по-английски:

потерять сознание, побрызгать холодной водой, вдохнуть нашатырный спирт, положить на спину, под­нять ноги, накрыть одеялом, теплое питье, опорожнить желудок, как можно быстрее, вызвать врача немедлен­но, прохладное, тенистое место, поднять голову и пле­чи, обтереть кожу губкой.



Внимательно изучите все ситуации. Найдите в них об­щие черты и различия.
HEADACHE

Выучите слова, прочитайте текст.

tooccur - иметь место, встречаться

common - обыкновенный, простой

eyestrain- усталость глаз (напряжение зрения)

hunger -голод

toaccompany - сопровождать

mumps - свинка

malaria- малярия

measles- корь

braintumour - опухольмозга



Headache is a symptom of many diseases. It may occur with common cold, fever, eye strain or hunger. It may accompany mumps, malaria, measles and many other infec­tions. But if severe headache persists you should consult a doctor. Frequent and persistent headache may sometimes be a symptom of brain tumour.

Упражнение 1. Переведите на английский язык: симптом многих болезней, обычная простуда, может сопровождать, сильная головная боль, советоваться с врачом, частая и постоянная головная боль, опухоль мозга.

Упражнение 2. Ответьте на вопросы к тексту:

  1. Headache is a symptom of many diseases, isn't it?

  2. Does it accompany measles and malaria?

  3. What is a symptom of brain tumour?

  • Задания и ответы на вопросы выполняются в тонкой ученической тетради. На обложке тетради указываются фамилия, имя, отчество студента, № группы
  • HEALTH SERVICE IN RUSSIA
  • MEDICAL SERVICE IN THE USA
  • Упражнение 2.
  • WORK OF THE HUMAN HEART
  • THE PATIENTS NEED YOUR HELP