2. Which of the European regions has the lowest average winter temperature?
3. What region has the highestwinter temperature in Russia?
4. What’s Verkhoyansk called?
5. What’s the average winter temperature in Verkhoyansk?
6. What climate zone does the Black Sea Coast form?
Give a Summery of the Text. Make up situations Using these Words and Word Combinations.
The Climatic zones of the European Part of Russia: to vary, from region to region, continental areas, the average winter temperature, the highest summer temperature, above, below.
The climate and Weather in the Place Where I Was During My Last Vacation: hot (warm), the sun, bright, to go for hikes, cool, dry, to rain, humid.
Translate into English. В России несколько климатических зон. Самая большая климатическая зона – это умеренная.
Среднегодовая температура ниже на Севере.
Speak on the Climate of Baschkortostan.
Translate these dialogs into Russian. Act them out. It’s a Beautiful Morning.
А. It’s a beautiful morning isn’t it?
В. Yes, it is. There isn’t a cloud in the sky and the sun is shining brightly. I’m afraid it may be hot the afternoon.
А. It’s 20 0C now. I’ve just heard over the radio the temperature may rise 29 0C in the afternoon.
В. That wouldn’t be so nice.
What an Awful Day!
А. What an awful day today!
В. Yes. The weather is awful, isn’t it?
А. I hate it when it rains.
В. So do I. It was worse yesterday, wasn’t it? It rained all day long.
А. Do you know the weather forecast for tomorrow?
В. No change for the better. Cold and rainy in the morning and windy in the afternoon.
А. That ‘s too bad.
With the development of industry, technology, trade and economic ties among the countries and ordinary people a great volume of business is done by mail. It is true that the telephone telegraph, telex and fax do speed transactions, but they also run up expenses to such an extent that practical businessman and economic people use these modern means of communication for matters requiring immediate action or messages which can be expressed briefly.
Business letters concern us in our daily living, especially those of us who live abroad and deal with foreigners.
People write business letters in many situations: concluding contracts, booking a seat in an airplane, reserving hotel accommodation, booking theatre tickets, writing order – letters, letters of inquiry and claim letters (letters of complaint) covering letters, letters of confirmation, letters of guarantee. A business letter, like a friendly or social letter, should make a favorable impression. In order that a letter may create this impression, it should be neatly written or typed, properly spaced on the page and correctly folded in the envelope.
The parts of a business letter. The basic outline for a business letter is that of any letter: the heading, the inside address, the salutation, the body of the letter, the complimentary close and the signature. If you forget something you mean to say in the letter, put it in a PS at the bottom of the page.
Vocabulary development of industry - развитие промышленности
complimentary close - заключительная формула вежливости
signature - подпись
circular letter - циркуляр
to forget - забывать
Внимательно прочитайте пример деловой переписки.
University High School Stamp
155 East 44th Street Mr. H.Buford
New York 17, Fisher, Chief
New York Public Information
Service United Nations
New York, New York
4th September, 2001
Dear Mr. Fischer
Our English class occasionally sends speakers to other oral – English classes as part of our program of work during the term. This year we should like to aid in publicizing UN activity during the forthcoming annual Assembly of the United Nations due to open this September.
Very truly yours
Внимательно изучите структуру делового письма и ответьте на вопросы:
What kind of letter is it?
Does the solution “Dear Mr. Fischer” scow that the correspondent is unknown to the author or known to him personally?
If just (to read) your promotion to sales manager. Let me (to offer) my warmest congratulations. I (not have) to tell you that all of us (to wish) you best of luck in your new position. We (to be sure) we (to read) more good news about you in the trade papers in the future.
Переведите на английский язык.
Письмо должно быть посвящено одному вопросу.
Деловые письма подписываются от руки четко.
Деловые письма пишутся на фирменных бланках.
Умение писать деловые письма имеет огромное значение для ведения коммерческой деятельности.
Выучите заключительные фразы деловой переписки.
We expect your early reply – надеемся на быстрый ответ
Please inform us in the shortest possible time – просим сообщить нам как можно скорее
We are looking forward to your consent –ожидаем вашего согласия
Great Britain is an island lying off the north-western coastline of Europe. The English Channel separates it from the mainland in the south. The Strait of Dover, 18 miles wide, divides it from France. Great Britain is separated from Belgium and Holland by the north Sea, and from Ireland by the Irish Sea.
The official name of Great Britain is the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. Great Britain is the name of the major island of the United Kingdom including England, Scotland and Wales; the United Kingdom, or the UK comprises Great Britain and Northern Ireland.
The UK is often referred to as Great Britain or the British Isles. It is an island state consisting of more than 5000 large and small islands, the most important being the Isle of Man and the Isle of Wight. England is a part of the island of Great Britain; the Cheviot Hills and the river Tweed divide it from Scotland.
No part of Great Britain lies more than one hundred miles from the coast. The coastline is broken and has a few bays and excellent natural harbours. Internationally famous ports include London, Bristol, Southampton, Portsmouth, Dover and others.
Geographically the island of Great Britain is subdivided into two main regions: Lowland Britain and Highland Britain. The highest mountain Ben Nevis (1343) is in Scotland; the highest peak in Wales is Snowdon (1085).
The greater part of the land is flat. There are plenty of short rivers in Great Britain; the Severn is the longest one, while the Thames is the deepest and the most important one.
Due to the influence of the Gulf Stream, a warm ocean current washing Britain’s western shores, the UK enjoys warmer winters and cooler summers than other countries at the same latitude.
There is much rain and fog in England. October is usually the wettest month, July is the hottest and January is the coldest one. All over the world Britain is notorious for its fogs. For many centuries, during the cold time of the year the English people have been using coal in their fireplaces in private houses, though smoke from factories contributed a great deal to the trouble too. That kind of fog and smoke English people used to call smog. An unusually thick smog in London in 1962 caused the death of some 4,000 people. During the 1960s, laws were passed under which using open coal fires in homes in the city area was forbidden. The laws stopped much of the pollution from the factories, too. The ordinary damp mists which afflict all parts of the countries.
The flora of the British Isles is varied and the fauna is similar to that of the north-west of Europe.
The country is not very rich in mineral resources. Over threequarters of Britain’s land is used for farming; farms produce nearly half of the food that Britain needs. The UK is a highly developed industrial country too, known as a producer and exporter of machinery, electronics, ships, aircraft and navigation equipment.
The capital of the UK is London, in England. The capital of Wales is Cardiff, and the Scottish capital is at Edinburgh; the capital of Northern Ireland is Belfast.
to subdue an independent tribe - подчинить независимое племя
invader - завоеватель
Navy - военно-морской флот
To wage a colonial war - вести колониальную войну
“the workshop of the world” - «мастерская мира»
Answer the questions:
Where does Great Britain lie?
What separates Great Britain from the mainland? From France, Belgium, Holland and Ireland?
What parts do Great Britain and the UK include?
What are the most important isles?
What are the main British ports?
Where is England situated?
What main regions is the island of Great Britain subdivided into?
How can you define climate of Great Britain?
What was the origin of smog in the UK?
What goods are produced in the UK?
What tribes and peoples was Great Britain conquered by?
THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
The United States of America is the 4th largest country in the world after Russia, Canada and China. The country consists of 3 parts: the continental part is in the center of the North American continent. The outlying territories are Hawaii and Alaska. The total area of the United States is over 9 mln sq. km. The country borders on Canada in the north and on Mexico in the south. It also has a seaborder with Russia.
The country is washed by 3 oceans: The Arctic, the Atlantic and the Pacific. The country has many lakes, including the Great Lakes and many rivers, the longest of which are the Mississippi, the Missouri, the Columbia and others. The highest mountains are the Rocky Mountains, the Appalachian, the Cordillera and the Sierra Nevada. The highest peak, Mount McKinley, is in Alaska.
The climate conditions are rather various. The country is rich in natural and mineral resources: oil, gas, iron ore, coal and various metals.
The USA is a highly developed industrial and agricultural country. The main industrial branches are aircraft, rocket, automobile, electronics, radio engineering and others.
Americans are made up from nearly all races and nations. The country population is over 250 mln. The official language of the state is English. The national symbol of the USA is the national flag “Stars and Stripes”, having 50 white stars and 13 white and red stripes on its field, symbolizing the number of the original and present day states.
Officially the country comprises 50 states and 1 District of Columbia. The states differ in size, population and economic development. Each state has its own capital. The capital of the USA is Washington. It is situated in the District of Columbia on the banks of the Potomac River and is named after the 1st US President - George Washington. There are many large cities in the country: New York, Los Angeles, Chicago, Philadelphia, Detroit, San Francisco, Boston and some others.
The United States of America is a federal state, headed by the President. According to the US Constitution the powers of the Government are divided into 3 branches: legislative, executive and judicial.
The legislative power belongs to the Congress consisting of the Senate and the House of Representatives. The Senate represents the states while the House of Representatives — population. The executive power belongs to the President and his Administration (Vice-President and Cabinet of Ministers). The judicial power belongs to the Supreme Court and the system of federal courts.
There are several political parties in the USA. The largest of them are the Republican (symbolized by a donkey) and the Democratic (symbolized by an elephant).
Nowadays the USA is one of the leading powers of the world due to its economic, political and military influence.