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Контрольная работа 1 Text 1 Прочтите и письменно переведите текст




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Контрольная работа 1
Text 1


  1. Прочтите и письменно переведите текст.


How to set up a business.
Alan Martin, a young entrepreneur, describes five important steps for setting up a business. Here’s what he says.

The first step, of course, is to develop a new product idea. Many people decide to start a business because they have a good idea.

But you have to remember that about 80 per cent of new business ideas fail. Usually it’s because people don’t understand the market. So the second step is to conduct market research. Your research should answer two key questions. First, is there a demand for your product or service? Second, who are your competitors?

When you know you have a market, the next step is to prepare a good business plan. Your business plan helps you to focus on what you want to do. It also helps with the fourth step: getting finance.

You have to decide what type of business you want to have, your goals, your product or service and its key selling points. In the plan, you also need to show that you can run the business. So you include information about staff, management, production, marketing, and, of course, finance. This shows that you know how to run a business.

But the most important step is the fifth one: to build a customer base. You need a number of regular customers who come back to you year after year. A strong customer base is the key to a successful business.


VOCABULARY


  1. to set up [set ʌp]

создать, основать, учредить

to set up a business / to start up a business

to set up a company / to start (up) a company

Half a million people set up a business each year in the UK.

To start up a company you must have a business plan.


основать бизнес, начать дело
основать компанию, создать компанию
Полмиллиона людей каждый год начинают бизнес в Великобритании.

Чтобы создать компанию, вы должны иметь бизнес-план.



  1. an entrepreneur [ˌɒntrəprəˈnɜː]

предприниматель

She’s a successful entrepreneur who has started several companies.

Она успешный предприниматель, который создал несколько компаний.

  1. a step [step]

шаг

  1. to fail [feɪl]

A lot of small businesses fail.

to fail to do smth


They failed to find any practical solutions.

a failure [ˈfeɪljə]



потерпеть неудачу, провалиться;

Много мелких фирм разоряются. потерпеть неудачу в чем-либо, не смочь что-либо сделать

Они не смогли найти практических решений.

провал, неудача



That has been the worst failure in my life..

Это была самая большая неудача в моей жизни.

  1. market [ˈmɑːkɪt]

рынок

in the market

in the domestic [dəˈmestɪk] market

Our company works only in the domestic market.

a market price [praɪs]

a market share [ʃeə]

market research [rɪˈsɜːtʃ]

to conduct [kənˈdʌkt] market research

We conducted the market research for two months and the results were very good.



на рынке

на внутреннем рынке

Наша компания работает только на внутреннем рынке.

рыночная цена

доля рынка

исследование рынка

проводить исследование рынка.

Мы проводили исследование рынка в течение двух месяцев, и результаты были очень хорошими.



  1. key [kiː]

ключ; ключевой, основной, важный

the key to smth

Good planning is the key to success.



ключ к чему-л

Хорошее планирование – ключ к успеху.



  1. demand for smth [dɪˈmɑːnd]

спрос на

The demand for computers is growing.

to be in demand

Computers are in great demand in the market.

to meet demand

The company had to increase production to meet demand.


Спрос на компьютеры растет.

пользоваться спросом

На рынке большой спрос на компьютеры.

удовлетворять спрос

Компания была вынуждена увеличить производство, чтобы удовлетворить спрос.


  1. to compete [kəmˈpiːt]

конкурировать, соревноваться

We are too small to compete with a company like that.

a competitor [kəmˈpetɪtə]

All our competitors are also trying to get the contract.

competition [ˌkɔmpə'tɪʃn]

They were faced with fierce competition.

Look at what the competition is doing and do it better.

competitive [kəmˈpetətɪv]
It’s a highly competitive market.

competitiveness [kəmˈpetətɪvnəs]

We are thinking about the ways to improve our competitiveness.


Мы слишком малы, чтобы конкурировать с такой компанией.

конкурент

Все наши конкуренты тоже пытаются получить этот контракт.

конкуренция; конкурент

Они столкнулись с ожесточенной конкуренцией.

Посмотри, что делает конкурент и сделай это лучше.

конкурирующий, конкурентный, конкурентоспособный

Это чрезвычайно конкурентный рынок.

конкурентоспособность

Мы обдумываем пути повышения нашей конкурентоспособности.



  1. finance [ˈfaɪnæns]

финансы, финансирование; финансировать

The college had to close because of lack of finance.

to finance [faɪˈnæns]

The project is being financed by the Government.

to raise finance

We are now trying to raise finance for a new project.


Колледж вынужден был закрыться из-за недостатка финансирования.

финансировать

Этот проект финансируется правительством.

найти средства, получить средства

Сейчас мы пытаемся найти средства для нового проекта.


  1. a goal [ɡəʊl]

цель

Our goal is to provide a good standard of medical care.

to set a goal

You should set goals for yourself at the beginning of each academic year.

to achieve/reach a goal

I haven’t yet reached my goal of becoming a successful entrepreneur.


Наша цель – обеспечить хороший уровень медицинского обслуживания.

поставить цель

Вы должны ставить перед собой цели в начале каждого учебного года.

достичь цели

Я еще не достиг своей цели стать успешным предпринимателем.


  1. a selling point [ˈselɪŋ pɔɪnt]

коммерческий аргумент

This car’s main selling point is its price.

Главное коммерческий аргумент этого автомобиля – его цена.

  1. to run [rʌn] a business (company)

вести дело; управлять бизнесом (компанией)

He has been running a bus company for ten years.

Он управляет автобусной компанией десять лет.

  1. staff [stɑːf]

персонал, сотрудники, штат

sales staff

The sales staff got two extra free days.




персонал отдела продаж

Персонал отдела продаж получил два дополнительных выходных.



  1. to include [ɪnˈkluːd]

включать в себя

A business plan includes a lot of information about the business and the entrepreneur.

Бизнес-план включает в себя много информации о бизнесе и о предпринимателе.

  1. a customer [ˈkʌstəmə]

клиент, покупатель

to build a customer base

Supermarkets use various tactics to attract customers and build a strong customer base.


a regular [ˈreɡjʊlə] customer

Our regular customers get good discounts.



создать клиентскую базу

Супермаркеты используют разнообразные методы, чтобы привлечь покупателей и создать прочную клиентскую базу.

постоянный клиент

Наши постоянные клиенты получают хорошие скидки.



  1. service [ˈsɜːvɪs]

услуга; обслуживание

To achieve the best results you need the services of a designer.
We must raise the quality of service.
to offer a service

Our hotel also offers transportation services.




Для достижения наилучших результатов вам необходимы услуги дизайнера.

Мы должны повышать качество обслуживания.

предлагать услугу

Наш отель также предлагает транспортные услуги.





  1. Выполните задания.


1. Answer the Questions

  1. What does Alan Martin describe?

  2. What is the first step in setting up a business?

  3. What percentage of business ideas fail?

  4. Why do they fail?

  5. What two questions must your market research answer?

  6. What two things does a business plan help you to do?

  7. What does it usually include? Name three things.

  8. Why do you need to show that you can run a business?

  9. Which step does Alan think is the most important? Why?


2. Read the statements and decide whether they are true (T) or false (F). Correct the false ones.

  1. The most important step in setting up a business is to develop a new product idea.

  2. 80 per cent of new business ideas are successful.

  3. Business ideas fail because the entrepreneurs don’t have enough finance.

  4. Your business plan shouldn’t include your product’s key selling points.

  5. A business will fail if it doesn’t have regular customers.

  6. The business’s customer base consists of the business’s regular customers.

  7. After you start up a business you must learn about your competitors.

  8. The market research will give you information about your competitors.

  9. One of the goals of a business plan is to show that you can run a business.


3. Match the words with their definitions

  1. someone who uses money to start businesses

  1. staff

  1. the percentage (процент, доля) of the total amount of sales of a particular product in the market that a company has

  1. regular customer

  1. a person or company that buys goods or services

  1. market

  1. a person who usually goes to the same shop, bar or restaurant

  1. selling point

  1. the process of collecting information about what products people like to buy, or what people like or dislike about a particular product

  1. goal

  1. to try to be more successful than other companies or people in business

  1. business plan

  1. a company that sells the same goods or services as another company

  1. finance

  1. the amount of a product or service that people want, or the fact that they want it

  1. competitor

  1. the activities of companies that are trying to be more successful than others

  1. market research

  1. a document giving details of a company’s plans for the future

  1. competition

  1. money that is used to pay for something such as a large project

  1. to compete

  1. something that you hope to achieve

  1. market share

  1. something that makes people want to buy a particular product

  1. customer

  1. people who work for a particular company, organization or institution

  1. entrepreneur

  1. a place where a product can be sold

  1. demand

4.Give the English equivalents

  1. проводить исследование рынка

  2. основной коммерческий аргумент

  3. начать дело

  4. пользоваться спросом

  5. управлять компанией

  6. постоянный клиент

  7. доля рынка

  8. рыночная экономика

  9. конкурент

  10. найти средства

  11. поставить цель

  12. персонал

  13. услуга

  14. создать клиентскую базу

  15. достичь цели

  16. провал, неудача


Text 2


  1. Прочтите и письменно переведите текст.


Success and Failure

Jake Golden, a manager of a cosmetics company, explains what makes a company successful.



To begin with, of course, a successful company has to make a profit. That means that it has to keep costs as low as possible – the cost of manufacturing, for example. Secondly you need to make big sales so there has to be a demand for your products. And of course, you want to be competitive. If your competitor brings out a better product, you can lose customers. They start to order products from your competitor, and you start having problems with distribution. You lose money and, finally, you can go bankrupt.

The most successful companies control the market. That means they have a bigger percentage of sales and a bigger market share than their competitors. Their product is market leader. It sells more than any other product in that sector.

Another factor for success is growth. No company wants to stand still. Successful companies are always finding new markets and new opportunities to grow.

But you can never be sure of success. I will always remember the trouble we had with our face cream. We launched it and it was selling very well. Then suddenly people started phoning and complaining it was burning their skin. The newspapers heard about it and wanted to know what we were doing about it. We really didn’t know what to do. We had tested the cream for over six months, and there had been no bad reaction to it. Besides, we had invested a lot in the product and the launch. Then the number of complaints doubled in a week. So, we recalled the product and lost a lot of money.



VOCABULARY

  1. to begin with [bɪˈɡɪn wɪð]

прежде всего

  1. to make a profit [ˈprɒfɪt]

приносить прибыль

  1. costs [kɒsts]

затраты

to keep costs low
the cost of manufacturing

держать затраты на низком уровне; сохранять низкий уровень затрат

производственные затраты; затраты на изготовление продукта



  1. to bring out a product [ˈprɒdʌkt]

выпускать продукт

A new model of computer has been brought out by the Apple.

Корпорация Apple выпустила новую модель компьютера.

  1. to order [ˈɔː(r)də(r)]

an order

заказывать

заказ


  1. distribution [ˌdɪstrɪˈbjuːʃ(ə)n]

распространение (товара), сбыт

  1. to go bankrupt [ɡəʊ ˈbæŋkrʌpt]

обанкротиться; разориться

A lot of people will lose their jobs if the company goes bankrupt.

Много людей потеряют работу, если компания обанкротится.

  1. percentage [pə(r)ˈsentɪdʒ]

процент; доля

The percentage of young entrepreneurs has greatly increased.

Доля молодых предпринимателей значительно увеличилась.

  1. it sells more than…

он продается лучше, чем…

Japanese cars sell more than American ones.

Японские автомобили продаются лучше, чем американские.

  1. to stand still

«застыть», оставаться без изменений

Research work never stands still.

Исследовательская работа никогда не останавливается.

  1. an opportunity [ˌɒpə(r)ˈtjuːnəti]

возможность

  1. to control [kənˈtrəʊl]

контролировать

  1. finally [ˈfaɪn(ə)li]

в конечном итоге

This sector of the market is controlled by five companies.

Этот сектор рынка контролируется пятью компаниями.

  1. to be sure of smth [ʃɔː(r)]

быть уверенным в чем-либо

If you are sure of the answers, say so.

Если вы уверены в ответах, скажите об этом.

  1. to launch (a product) [lɔːntʃ]

вывести продукт на рынок

a launch

запуск (продукта)

  1. to complain about smth [kəmˈpleɪn]

жаловаться на что-либо

Our customers never complain about the service.

Наши клиенты никогда не жалуются на обслуживание.

a complaint

жалоба

  1. to invest (in) [ɪnˈvest]

инвестировать, вкладывать деньги во что-либо

The institute will invest 5 million in the project.

Институт вложит 5 миллионов в этот проект.

  1. to recall (a product) [rɪˈkɔːl]

отозвать (продукт с рынка)

The company had to recall the car from the market.

Компания была вынуждена отозвать автомобиль с рынка.

a recall

отзыв (продукта)

The recall cost a lot of money.

Отзыв стоил много денег.

  1. to burn [bɜː(r)n]

жечь, обжигать

  1. trouble [ˈtrʌb(ə)l]

проблемы, заботы, беспокойство




  1. Выполните задания.


1. Answer the Questions

1. When do we say that the company is successful?

2. What does the expression ‘control the market’ mean?

3. What product is called ‘market leader’?

4. How many factors for success does Jake name? What are they?

5. Why do companies need new markets?

6. What happens if a company loses customers?

7. When does a company start losing customers?

8. What should a company do to be competitive?

9. What problem did the company have with their face cream?

10. Did they test the product before the launch?

11. Why did they decide to recall the product?

12. Did the recall influence the company’s finance?

2. Read the statements and decide whether they are true (T) or false (F). Correct the false ones.

1. A successful company keeps costs of manufacturing high.

2. If you are competitive, your products are better than those of your competitor.

3. You can make big sales if there is a demand for your products.

4. A market leader never sells well.

5. A successful company doesn’t need new markets.

6. If you make a profit, you can go bankrupt.

7. If you have no competitors in your sector of the market, your customers will never leave you.

8. The company with the highest cost of manufacturing controls the market.

9. The cosmetics company launched the face cream without having tested it.



10. The customers started phoning the newspapers complaining about the cream.
3. Match the words with their definitions

  1. money that you make from selling something or doing business in a particular period, after taking away costs

  1. to order

  1. the activities of making goods (товары) available to customers after they have been produced, for example, moving, storing (хранение) and selling goods

  1. costs

  1. not to have enough money to pay your debts and continue any business activities

  1. distribution

  1. all the money that a business must spend to produce something or provide a service

  1. opportunity

  1. a part of a larger number or amount

  1. to go bankrupt

  1. to produce a new product and start to sell it

  1. profit

  1. a chance to do something

  1. to bring out

  1. to ask for a product to be made for you or delivered to you

  1. percentage

  1. to show or make a new product available for sale for the first time

  1. to recall

  1. to say that something is wrong or not satisfactory

  1. to launch

  1. to put money into something to make a profit

  1. to complain

  1. to ask customers to return a product because there may be something wrong with it

  1. to invest





4.Give the English equivalents

  1. обанкротиться

  2. выпускать продукт на рынок

  3. приносить прибыль

  4. заказ

  5. сбыт

  6. производственные затраты

  7. процент

  8. возможность

  9. прежде всего

  10. инвестировать

  11. отзывать продукт

  12. жаловаться

  13. жалоба

  14. проблемы

  15. в конечном итоге

  16. продаваться


Text 3


  1. Прочтите и письменно переведите текст.


Types and Structures of Businesses
Businesses generally take one of the following forms.

Sole Proprietor

This is the simplest way of starting a business. One person sets up and runs the company. The person provides all the capital and has unlimited liability for business debts, even if this means selling personal assets.



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